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The New Oxford Annotated Bible New Revised Standard Study Bible that provides essential scholarship and guidance for Bible readers.

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Commentary on Exodus

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Commentary spanning earlier chapters

15.22–18.27 : God journeys with Israel to Mount Sinai.

Israel will remember this journey from slavery to covenant as a time of complete dependence on God and simultaneous complaining, despite having experienced rescue and provision at every stage (contrast 14.31; 15.1–21 ).

18.1–27 : Jethro visits.

The priest of Midian celebrates a sacred meal and counsels Moses about the administration of justice.

1 :

Jethro, 2.18n.

2–4 :

Zipporah and her sons ( 2.21–22; 4.20 ) apparently were sent back from Egypt to Midian.

5 :

The narrative is out of order, for Israel reaches the mountain of God later (19.2; 3.1n.; but see 17.6); Deut 1.9–18 places it later.

7–9 :

The story focuses exclusively on Moses' welcome of and conversations with Jethro. The arrival of Zipporah and the two sons is not even mentioned.

9–12 :

Even non‐Israelites recognize God's greatness, as in 14.25 , and later, in Josh 2.9–11; 9.3–27 .

11 :

Greater than all gods, 12.12; 15.11 .

12 :

Aaron and the elders join in a sacred meal in the presence of God ( 24.9–11 ).

13–27 :

This episode, in which Jethro suggests a reorganization of the administration of justice, is retold with significant differences in Deut 1.9–18 .

15–16 :

Inquire of God, seek a verdict by oracle (Judg 4.4–5 ).

21–22 :

Cf. Num 11.16–17,24–25; Deut 16.18–20; 17.8–13 .

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