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The New Oxford Annotated Bible New Revised Standard Study Bible that provides essential scholarship and guidance for Bible readers.

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Commentary on Hosea

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10.1–7 : Israel, a luxuriant vine (v. 1 ), is now weedy (v. 4 ) and overrun with thorns (v. 8 ).

1–2 :

In Canaan Israel increased in sin (here adopting illicit religious practices) as it increased in pro sperity; cf. Deut 6.10–15 .

2 :

Pillars, standing stones, condemned by Mosaic law (Ex 23.24 ); see 3.4 .

4 :

Empty oaths, Ex 20.7 .

5 :

Calf, 8.5n. Bethaven, see 4.15n.

8 :

Aven, 10.5n. Mountains, Cover us …, this phrase will be reused in New Testament depictions of divine judgment (Lk 23.30; Rev 6.16 ).

9 :

Gibeah, 9.9n.

10.11–15 : Heifer Israel now plows wickedness.

11 :

Trained heifer, compare with 4.16 . Spared herneck, i.e., she was unyoked.

12 :

Break up your fallow ground, Jer 4.3 . Rain is a frequent prophetic symbol of divine restoration and blessing (Isa 44.3; 45.8; 55.10 ).

13 :

Contrast Ps 20.7, 44.6, Isa 31.1 .

14 :

ShalmanBetharbel, the allusion is unknown.

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