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The Oxford Study Bible Study Bible supplemented with commentary from scholars of various religions.

Chapter 1

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1 IN the twelfth year of the reign of Nebuchadnezzar, who ruled the Assyrians from his great city of Nineveh, Arphaxad was ruling the Medes from Ecbatana. 2Arphaxad encircled Ecbatana with a wall built of hewn stones, each four and a half feet thick and nine feet long. He made the wall a hundred and five feet high and seventy-five feet thick, 3and at the city gates he set up towers a hundred and fifty feet high with foundations ninety feet thick; 4the gates themselves he made a hundred and five feet high, and he made them sixty feet wide to allow his army to march out in full force with the infantry in formation. 5It was in those days, then, that King Nebuchadnezzar waged war against King Arphaxad in the great plain on the borders of Ragau. 6All the inhabitants of the hill-country, all who lived along the Euphrates, the Tigris, and the Hydaspes, and, on the plain, King Arioch of Elam, these rallied to Nebuchadnezzar; and many tribes of the Chelodites joined forces with them.

7King Nebuchadnezzar of Assyria sent a summons to all the inhabitants of Persia, and to all who lived in the west: the inhabitants of Cilicia and Damascus, Lebanon and Antilebanon, all who lived along the coast, 8the peoples in Carmel and Gilead, Upper Galilee, and the great plain of Esdraelon, 9all who were in Samaria and its towns, and those to the west of the Jordan as far as Jerusalem, Betane, Chelus, Kadesh, and the wadi of Egypt, those who lived in Tahpanhes, Rameses, and the whole land of Goshen 10as far as Tanis and Memphis, and all the inhabitants of Egypt as far as the borders of Ethiopia. 11But the king's summons was flouted by the entire region, and they did not join him for the campaign. They were not afraid of him; they regarded him as a mere man and, treating his envoys with contempt, they sent them back empty-handed.

12This roused Nebuchadnezzar to fury against the whole region; he swore by his throne and kingdom to exact vengeance from all the territories of Cilicia, Damascus, and Syria, and to put their inhabitants to the sword, along with the Moabites, the Ammonites, the people throughout Judaea, and everyone in Egypt, the whole region within the limits of the two seas.

13In the seventeenth year of his reign he marshalled his forces against King Arphaxad and defeated him in battle, with the complete rout of his army, all his cavalry and chariots. 14He occupied his towns, and advancing on Ecbatana he captured its towers, looted the bazaars, and reduced its splendour to abject ruin. 15He caught Arphaxad in the mountains of Ragau and ran him through with his spear, and so made an end of him a 1:15 made an end of him: prob. rdg; Gk adds up to that day. . 16Then he and his combined forces, an immense host of warriors, went back with the spoil to Nineveh, where for four months he relaxed and feasted with his army.

Notes:

a 1:15 made an end of him: prob. rdg; Gk adds up to that day.

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