This chapter (it reverts to Heb.) alludes to the same events as ch. 7
, though on a lower level of literary quality.
My earlier vision: that of ch. 7
Susa: a royal city in southern Persia, the area being named Elam after the ancient Elamites. Ulai: a river at or near Susa.
Ram and the “goat” of v. 5
were probably signs of the zodiac.
Alexander the Great's conquest of the East was remarkably swift, 334–323 B.C.E.
Four … horns: the successors to Alexander in Greece, Asia Minor, Syria and points east, and Egypt.
Antiochus IV Epiphanes; see 7.8 n.
See Isa. 14.12–16
Regular offering suppressed: as described in 1 Macc. 1.45
Evenings and mornings: this amounts to 1,150 days, a little less than the three and a half years of
Appearance of a man: not to be confused with the figure of
Gabriel: the name of an archangel; he appears often in the Book of Enoch.
The end of time, when God would finally judge the world. A concern with what would happen at the end of time was a major theme of
See 7.8 n.
see v. 17
By no human hand: a theme in
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