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The Oxford Study Bible Study Bible supplemented with commentary from scholars of various religions.

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Commentary on The Book of Daniel

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8.1–27 : The ram, the goat and the little horn.

This chapter (it reverts to Heb.) alludes to the same events as ch. 7 , though on a lower level of literary quality.

1 :

My earlier vision: that of ch. 7 .

2 :

Susa: a royal city in southern Persia, the area being named Elam after the ancient Elamites. Ulai: a river at or near Susa.

3 :

Ram and the “goat” of v. 5 were probably signs of the zodiac.

5 :

Alexander the Great's conquest of the East was remarkably swift, 334–323 B.C.E.

8 :

Four … horns: the successors to Alexander in Greece, Asia Minor, Syria and points east, and Egypt.

9 :

Antiochus IV Epiphanes; see 7.8 n.

10–11 :

See Isa. 14.12–16 .

13 :

Regular offering suppressed: as described in 1 Macc. 1.45 .

14 :

Evenings and mornings: this amounts to 1,150 days, a little less than the three and a half years of 7.25 .

15 :

Appearance of a man: not to be confused with the figure of 7.13 .

16 :

Gabriel: the name of an archangel; he appears often in the Book of Enoch.

17 :

The end of time, when God would finally judge the world. A concern with what would happen at the end of time was a major theme of apocalyptic literature.

23–25 :

See 7.8 n.

23 :

Last days: see v. 17 .

25 :

By no human hand: a theme in 7.26 .

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