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The Oxford Study Bible Study Bible supplemented with commentary from scholars of various religions.

Chapter 4

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1 KING Solomon reigned over Israel. 2 a 4:2–6 Cp. 2 Sam. 8:16–18 ; 20:23–26 ; 1 Chr. 18:15–17 . His officers were as follows:

  • In charge of the calendar b 4:2 In…calendar: prob. rdg; Heb. Elihoreph (verse 3). : Azariah son of Zadok the priest.

  • 3Adjutant-general c 4:3 Adjutant-general: prob. rdg, cp. 1 Chr. 18:16 ; Heb. Adjutants-general. : Ahijah son of Shisha d son of Shisha: prob. rdg; Heb. sons of Shisha. . Secretary of state: Jehoshaphat son of Ahilud.

  • 4Commander of the army: Benaiah son of Jehoiada.

  • Priests: Zadok and Abiathar.

  • 5Superintendent of the regional governors: Azariah son of Nathan e 4:5 Zabud…Nathan: so Gk; Heb. adds priest. .

  • King's Friend: Zabud son of Nathan.

  • 6Comptroller of the household: Ahishar. Superintendent of the forced levy: Adoniram son of Abda.

7Solomon had twelve regional governors over Israel and they supplied the food for the king and the royal household, each being responsible for one month's provision in the year. 8These were their names:

  • Ben-hur in the hill-country of Ephraim.

  • 9Ben-dekar in Makaz, Shaalbim, Beth-she-mesh, Elon, and Beth-hanan f 4:9 Elon, and Beth-hanan: so some MSS; others Elon-beth-hanan. .

  • 10Ben-hesed in Aruboth; he had charge also of Socoh and all the land of Hepher.

  • 11Ben-abinadab, who had married Solomon's daughter Taphath, in all the district of Dor.

  • 12Baana son of Ahilud in Taanach and Megiddo, all Beth-shean as far as Abel-meholah beside Zartanah, and from Beth-shean below Jezreel as far as Jokmeam.

  • 13Ben-geber in Ramoth-gilead, including the tent-villages of Jair son of Manasseh in Gilead and the region of Argob in Bashan, sixty large walled towns with bronze gate-bars.

  • 14Ahinadab son of Iddo in Mahanaim.

  • 15Ahimaaz in Naphtali; he also had married a daughter of Solomon, Basmath.

  • 16Baanah son of Hushai in Asher and Aloth.

  • 17Jehoshaphat son of Paruah in Issachar.

  • 18Shimei son of Elah in Benjamin.

  • 19Geber son of Uri in Gilead, the country of Sihon king of the Amorites and of Og king of Bashan.

  • In addition, one governor over all the governors g 4:19 over…governors: prob. rdg; Heb. omits. in the land.

20 THE people of Judah and Israel were countless as the sands of the sea; they ate and drank and enjoyed life. 21 h 4:21 In Heb. 5:1 . Solomon ruled over all the kingdoms from the river Euphrates to Philistia and as far as the frontier of Egypt; they paid tribute and were subject to him all his life.

22Solomon's provisions for one day were thirty kor of flour and sixty kor of meal, 23ten fat oxen and twenty oxen from the pastures and a hundred sheep, as well as stags, gazelles, roebucks, and fattened fowl. 24For he was paramount over all the region west of the Euphrates from Tiphsah to Gaza, ruling all the kings west of the river; and he enjoyed peace on all sides. 25All through his reign the people of Judah and Israel lived in peace, everyone from Dan to Beersheba under his own vine and his own fig tree.

26Solomon had forty thousand chariot-horses in his stables and twelve thousand cavalry horses.

27The regional governors, each for a month in turn, supplied provisions for King Solomon and all who came to his table; they never fell short in their deliveries. 28They provided also barley and straw, each according to his duty, for the horses and chariot-horses where it was required.

29God gave Solomon deep wisdom and insight, and understanding as wide as the sand on the seashore, 30so that Solomon's wisdom surpassed that of all the men of the east and of all Egypt. 31For he was wiser than any man, wiser than Ethan the Ezrahite, and Heman, Calcol, and Darda, the sons of Mahol; his fame spread among all the surrounding nations. 32He propounded three thousand proverbs, and his songs numbered a thousand and five. 33He discoursed of trees, from the cedar of Lebanon down to the marjoram that grows out of the wall, of beasts and birds, of reptiles and fish. 34People of all races came to listen to the wisdom of Solomon, and he received gifts i 4:34 he received gifts: so Gk (Luc.); Heb. omits. from all the kings in the world who had heard of his wisdom.

Notes:

a 4:2–6 Cp. 2 Sam. 8:16–18 ; 20:23–26 ; 1 Chr. 18:15–17 .

b 4:2 In…calendar: prob. rdg; Heb. Elihoreph (verse 3).

c 4:3 Adjutant-general: prob. rdg, cp. 1 Chr. 18:16 ; Heb. Adjutants-general.

d son of Shisha: prob. rdg; Heb. sons of Shisha.

e 4:5 Zabud…Nathan: so Gk; Heb. adds priest.

f 4:9 Elon, and Beth-hanan: so some MSS; others Elon-beth-hanan.

g 4:19 over…governors: prob. rdg; Heb. omits.

h 4:21 In Heb. 5:1 .

i 4:34 he received gifts: so Gk (Luc.); Heb. omits.

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