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The Jewish Study Bible Contextualizes the Hebrew Bible with accompanying scholarly text on Jewish traditions and history.

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Commentary on Deuteronomy

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2.1–25:

The circuit via Transjordan. 1–8a: Num. 20.14–21. From Kadesh Israel turned south through the Arabah to the Gulf of Aqaba in order to go around Edom (Num. 21.4; cf. 33.47–49 ).

4:

Descendants of Esau, see Gen. 36.1 .

8a :

Elath, see 1 Kings 9.26. Ezion‐geber, see Num. 33.35.

8b–25:

Num. 21.4–20, significantly revised. Turning along the brook Zered (modern Wadi el‐Hasa), which formed Edom's southern boundary, Israel detoured through the wilderness of Moab toward the Amorite kingdom of Sihon.

9:

Moab and Ammon (v. 19 ) were traditionally related through Lot (Gen. 19.36–38 ).

10–12:

These verses are slightly indented, setting them off from the rest of the passage so as to mitigate the anachronistic post‐conquest perspective (see v. 12 n. ).

10–11:

Emim, Rephaim (cf. v. 20; 3.11–13 ), names reflecting the legendary view that the aboriginal inhabitants of the land were fearsome giants.

12:

Horites, see Gen. 36.20 n. As Israel didʾto possess: Here the Israelite conquest of the land is represented as already having been completed, conflicting with the attribution to Moses and the narrative setting in Transjordan, prior to the conquest. The anachronism reflects the date of composition of this section (see 1.1 n.; 3.11 n. ).

13:

Wadi, a seasonal stream that dries up in the summer.

14:

Fulfilling God's angry oath ( 1.34–35; Num. 14.28–30 ). Without the death of the generation of the exodus, here marked as accomplished, there can be no entry into the promised land.

15:

Hand of the Lord, thus indicating that they did not die merely of old age or natural causes. The imagery inverts the standard idea of holy war: God had turned against Israel rather than fight‐ ing on its behalf ( 32.30 n.; see 3.22; 7.1–5; 12.29–31; 20.1–20 ).

20:

Cf. vv. 10–11 n., Gen. 14.5.

23:

CaphtorimʾCrete refers to the conquest of the coastal plain by Sea Peoples such as Philis‐ tines shortly after 1200 BCE (see Gen. 10.14; Amos 9.7 ).

24 :

Arnon, see Num. 21.13–14.

26–37:

The victory over Sihon, whose capital was at Heshbon. The earlier source in Num. 21.21–32 is here supplemented and revised.

30 :

See Exod. 4.21 n.

34:

Doomed, see 7.2 n.

37:

The river Jabbok makes a wide bend south and thus forms the western border of Ammon ( 3.16 ).

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