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The Jewish Study Bible Contextualizes the Hebrew Bible with accompanying scholarly text on Jewish traditions and history.

Chapter 18

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1Jethro priest of Midian, Moses' father‐in‐law, heard all that God had done for Moses and for Israel His people, how the LORD had brought Israel out from Egypt. 2So Jethro, Moses' father‐in‐law, took Zipporah, Moses' wife, after she had been sent home, 3and her two sons—of whom one was named Gershom, that is to say, “I have been a stranger d Heb. ger. in a foreign land”; 4and the other was named Eliezer, e Lit. “(My) God is help.” meaning, “The God of my father was my help, and He delivered me from the sword of Pharaoh.” 5Jethro, Moses' father‐in‐law, brought Moses' sons and wife to him in the wilderness, where he was encamped at the mountain of God. 6He sent word to Moses, “I, your father‐in‐law Jethro, am coming to you, with your wife and her two sons.” 7Moses went out to meet his father‐in‐law; he bowed low and kissed him; each asked after the other's welfare, and they went into the tent.

8Moses then recounted to his father‐in‐law everything that the LORD had done to Pharaoh and to the Egyptians for Israel's sake, all the hardships that had befallen them on the way, and how the LORD had delivered them. 9And Jethro rejoiced over all the kindness that the LORD had shown Israel when He delivered them from the Egyptians. 10“Blessed be the LORD,” Jethro said, “who delivered you from the Egyptians and from Pharaoh, and who delivered the people from under the hand of the Egyptians. 11Now I know that the LORD is greater than all gods, a‐ Meaning of Heb. uncertain. yes, by the result of their very schemes against [the people].” ‐a Meaning of Heb. uncertain. 12And Jethro, Moses' father‐in‐law, brought a burnt offering and sacrifices for God; and Aaron came with all the elders of Israel to partake of the meal before God with Moses' father‐in‐law.

13Next day, Moses sat as magistrate among the people, while the people stood about Moses from morning until evening. 14But when Moses' father‐in‐law saw how much he had to do for the people, he said, “What is this thing that you are doing to the people? Why do you act b Lit. “sit” as magistrate; cf. v. 13 . alone, while all the people stand about you from morning until evening?” 15Moses replied to his father‐in‐law, “It is because the people come to me to inquire of God. 16When they have a dispute, it comes before me, and I decide between one person and another, and I make known the laws and teachings of God.”

17But Moses' father‐in‐law said to him, “The thing you are doing is not right; 18you will surely wear yourself out, and these people as well. For the task is too heavy for you; you cannot do it alone. 19Now listen to me. I will give you counsel, and God be with you! You represent the people before God: you bring the disputes before God, 20and enjoin upon them the laws and the teachings, and make known to them the way they are to go and the practices they are to follow. 21You shall also seek out from among all the people capable men who fear God, trustworthy men who spurn ill‐gotten gain. Set these over them as chiefs of thousands, hundreds, fifties, and tens, and 22let them judge the people at all times. Have them bring every major dispute to you, but let them decide every minor dispute themselves. Make it easier for yourself by lettingthem share the burden with you. 23If you do this—and God so commands you—you will be able to bear up; and all these people too will go home unwearied.”

24Moses heeded his father‐in‐law and did just as he had said. 25Moses chose capable men out of all Israel, and appointed them heads over the people—chiefs of thousands, hundreds, fifties, and tens; 26and they judged the people at all times: the difficult matters they would bring to Moses, and all the minor matters they would decide themselves. 27Then Moses bade his father‐in‐law farewell, and he went his way to his own land.

Notes:

d Heb. ger.

e Lit. “(My) God is help.”

a‐a Meaning of Heb. uncertain.

b Lit. “sit” as magistrate; cf. v. 13 .

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