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The Apocryphal Old Testament Collection of the most important non-canonical Old Testament books designed for general use.

Chapter VIII

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Text Commentary

1And Azazel taught men to make swords, 1 Gk.a ‘Azael taught men to make swords’; Gk.s ‘First Azael, the tenth of the leaders, taught the making of swords’. and daggers, and shields and breastplates. 2 Gk.a ‘and arms, and shields and breastplates, teachings of angels’; Gk.s ‘and breastplates and all military equipment’. And he showed them the things after these, and the art of making them: bracelets, 3 Eth.I (cp. Gk.a) ‘and bracelets’. and ornaments, 4 Gk.a ‘And he showed them metals, and the art of working them, and bracelets, and ornaments’; Gk.s ‘and the metals of the earth and gold, how they work them and make them into ornaments for women, and silver. And he showed to them’. In Eth. ‘the things after these’ possibly derives from a corrupt translation of the word for ‘metals’. and the art of making up the eyes and of beautifying the eyelids, 5 So Eth., lit. ‘and how to make up the eyes with antimony and how to beautify the eyelids’: Gk.a ‘and antimony and eyepaint’ (cp. Aram. ‘concerning antimony and concerning eye-paint’); Gk.s is in part corrupt, but should probably be read ‘both how to make up the eyes with antimony and how to beautify the face’. and the most precious and choice stones, and all kinds of coloured dyes. 2And the world was changed. 6 And the world was changed: so G; Q is corrupt; D′ ‘and the changing of the world’; all other Eth. MSS ‘and eternal change’. But Gk.a s om., and Eth. is probably a second rendering (more precisely, a corrupt transliteration) of ‘the metals (of the earth)’. Gk.s adds ‘And the sons of men made these things for themselves and their wives, and they transgressed and led astray the holy ones’. And there was great impiety and much fornication, 7 MT1U ‘And there was great and widespread (lit. ‘much’) impiety, and they committed fornication’ (GD′ are similar); Gk.a ‘And there was much impiety, and they committed fornication’; Gk.s ‘And there was much impiety on the earth’. and they went astray, 8 and they went astray: Q Gk.s om. and all their ways became corrupt. 9 Gk.a ‘and became corrupt in all their ways’; Gk.s ‘and they made all their ways corrupt’. 3Amezarak 10 So Eth. II: Eth. I ‘Amizaras’ or similar. Both forms are corrupt for ‘Semyaza’. taught all 11 GMQT1 UD′ om. those who cast spells and cut roots, 12 Gk.a ‘Semyaza taught spells and the cutting of roots’; Gk.s ‘And furthermore their leader, Semyaza, taught spells (so I correct Gk.s) against the mind, and the roots of the plants of the earth’. Armaros the release of spells, 13 Gk.s ‘the eleventh, Pharmaros, taught charms, spells, magical skills and the release of spells’. Aram. is incomplete, but appears to have had a long text comparable to that of Gk.s. and Baraqiel astrologers, 14 Gk.a ‘[Ba]raqiel astrology’; Gk.s ‘the ninth taught astrology’. and Kokabel portents, 15 Gk.s ‘the fourth taught astrology’. and Tamiel taught astrology, 16 Gk.a ‘Sathiel astrology’: Gk.s ‘the eighth taught aeroscopy’. Eth. ‘Tamiel’ and Gk.a ‘Sathiel’ are corrupt for ‘Ziqiel’ which is attested by Aram. here and is the eighth name in vi. 7. – Gk.s adds ‘the third taught the portents of the earth; the seventh taught the portents of the sun’; correspondingly Aram. adds ‘Arataqqiph (or ‘Arataqoph’) taught the portents of the earth; Shamshiel taught the portents of the sun’. Arataqqiph and Shamshiel are second and fifteenth in vi. 7, not third and seventh, but in Gk.s in vi. 7 the third name (‘Araqiel’) appears to be an alternative form of the second, and the seventh (‘Sampsich’) of the fifteenth. and Asradel 17 Corrupt; the name originally was ‘Sahriel’ (‘Moon of God’). taught the path of the moon. 18 Gk.a ‘Seriel the course of the moon’; Gk.s ‘the twentieth taught the portents of the moon’. Sahriel is sixteenth in vi. 7, not twentieth, but Gk.s appears to presuppose this name for the twentieth angel, as well as for the sixteenth. Gk.s further adds ‘All these began to reveal mysteries to their wives and their children. After this the giants began to devour the flesh of men’; Aramaic evidence has survived corresponding to the first of these sentences, but not to the second. 4And at the destruction of men 19 And at … men: Gk.s ‘And men began to decrease on the earth’. they cried out, 20 they cried out: Gk.a s om. and their voices reached heaven. 21 and their … heaven: Gk.a ‘a cry went up to heaven’; Gk.s1 ‘and the rest cried out to heaven concerning their mistreatment, saying that the remembrance of them should be brought before the Lord’; Gk.s2 ‘Then men cried out to heaven, saying, Bring our suit before the Most High, and our destruction before the Great Glory, before the Lord of all the lords in majesty’.

Notes:

1 Gk.a ‘Azael taught men to make swords’; Gk.s ‘First Azael, the tenth of the leaders, taught the making of swords’.

2 Gk.a ‘and arms, and shields and breastplates, teachings of angels’; Gk.s ‘and breastplates and all military equipment’.

3 Eth.I (cp. Gk.a) ‘and bracelets’.

4 Gk.a ‘And he showed them metals, and the art of working them, and bracelets, and ornaments’; Gk.s ‘and the metals of the earth and gold, how they work them and make them into ornaments for women, and silver. And he showed to them’. In Eth. ‘the things after these’ possibly derives from a corrupt translation of the word for ‘metals’.

5 So Eth., lit. ‘and how to make up the eyes with antimony and how to beautify the eyelids’: Gk.a ‘and antimony and eyepaint’ (cp. Aram. ‘concerning antimony and concerning eye-paint’); Gk.s is in part corrupt, but should probably be read ‘both how to make up the eyes with antimony and how to beautify the face’.

6 And the world was changed: so G; Q is corrupt; D′ ‘and the changing of the world’; all other Eth. MSS ‘and eternal change’. But Gk.a s om., and Eth. is probably a second rendering (more precisely, a corrupt transliteration) of ‘the metals (of the earth)’. Gk.s adds ‘And the sons of men made these things for themselves and their wives, and they transgressed and led astray the holy ones’.

7 MT1U ‘And there was great and widespread (lit. ‘much’) impiety, and they committed fornication’ (GD′ are similar); Gk.a ‘And there was much impiety, and they committed fornication’; Gk.s ‘And there was much impiety on the earth’.

8 and they went astray: Q Gk.s om.

9 Gk.a ‘and became corrupt in all their ways’; Gk.s ‘and they made all their ways corrupt’.

10 So Eth. II: Eth. I ‘Amizaras’ or similar. Both forms are corrupt for ‘Semyaza’.

11 GMQT1 UD′ om.

12 Gk.a ‘Semyaza taught spells and the cutting of roots’; Gk.s ‘And furthermore their leader, Semyaza, taught spells (so I correct Gk.s) against the mind, and the roots of the plants of the earth’.

13 Gk.s ‘the eleventh, Pharmaros, taught charms, spells, magical skills and the release of spells’. Aram. is incomplete, but appears to have had a long text comparable to that of Gk.s.

14 Gk.a ‘[Ba]raqiel astrology’; Gk.s ‘the ninth taught astrology’.

15 Gk.s ‘the fourth taught astrology’.

16 Gk.a ‘Sathiel astrology’: Gk.s ‘the eighth taught aeroscopy’. Eth. ‘Tamiel’ and Gk.a ‘Sathiel’ are corrupt for ‘Ziqiel’ which is attested by Aram. here and is the eighth name in vi. 7. – Gk.s adds ‘the third taught the portents of the earth; the seventh taught the portents of the sun’; correspondingly Aram. adds ‘Arataqqiph (or ‘Arataqoph’) taught the portents of the earth; Shamshiel taught the portents of the sun’. Arataqqiph and Shamshiel are second and fifteenth in vi. 7, not third and seventh, but in Gk.s in vi. 7 the third name (‘Araqiel’) appears to be an alternative form of the second, and the seventh (‘Sampsich’) of the fifteenth.

17 Corrupt; the name originally was ‘Sahriel’ (‘Moon of God’).

18 Gk.a ‘Seriel the course of the moon’; Gk.s ‘the twentieth taught the portents of the moon’. Sahriel is sixteenth in vi. 7, not twentieth, but Gk.s appears to presuppose this name for the twentieth angel, as well as for the sixteenth. Gk.s further adds ‘All these began to reveal mysteries to their wives and their children. After this the giants began to devour the flesh of men’; Aramaic evidence has survived corresponding to the first of these sentences, but not to the second.

19 And at … men: Gk.s ‘And men began to decrease on the earth’.

20 they cried out: Gk.a s om.

21 and their … heaven: Gk.a ‘a cry went up to heaven’; Gk.s1 ‘and the rest cried out to heaven concerning their mistreatment, saying that the remembrance of them should be brought before the Lord’; Gk.s2 ‘Then men cried out to heaven, saying, Bring our suit before the Most High, and our destruction before the Great Glory, before the Lord of all the lords in majesty’.

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