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The Apocryphal Old Testament Collection of the most important non-canonical Old Testament books designed for general use.

Chapter X

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Text Commentary

1And then the Most High, the Great and Holy One, spoke 1 Gk.a ‘Then the Most High talked about these things, the Great Holy One, and he spoke and talked’; Gk.s ‘Then the Most High talked, and the Great Holy One spoke’. and 2sent Arsyalalyur 2 So Eth.II: D′ ‘Asuryal’; G ‘Asaryalyor’ and other Eth.I MSS similarly; Gk.a ‘Istrael’; Gk.s ‘Uriel’. All Eth. readings probably corruptions of ‘Istrael’. to the son of Lamech, and said to him, 3 and said to him: Eth.I Gk.a om.; Gk.s ‘saying’. Say 4 Eth.I prefixes ‘And’; Gk.s prefixes ‘Go to Noah and’. to him in my name, Hide yourself, and reveal to him the end which is coming, for the whole earth will be destroyed, and a deluge 5 and a deluge: Gk.s ‘And say to him that a deluge’. is about to come on all the earth, and what is in it will be destroyed. 6 D′ ‘and everything that is in it will be destroyed’; Gk.a ‘and it will destroy everything that is on it’; Gk.s ‘to destroy everything from the face of the earth’. 3And now 7 And now: Gk.a ‘And’; Gk.s om. and reads for this verse ‘Teach the righteous one, the son of Lamech, what he should do, and he will preserve his soul alive and will escape through the world, and from him a plant will be planted and will be established for all the generations of the world’. teach him that he may escape, and that his offspring may survive for the whole earth. 8 for the whole earth: so Eth.II, but N adds ‘for ever’; Eth.I ‘for all generations’; Gk.a s ‘for all the generations of the world’. 4And further the Lord said 9 Gk.a s ‘And he said’. to Raphael, Bind 10 Gk.s prefixes ‘Go, Raphael, and’. Azazel 11 Gk.a s ‘Azael’. by his hands and his feet, 12 by his hands and his feet: Gk.s ‘tie him hand and foot’. and throw him into the darkness. And split open the desert which is in Dudael, 13 Gk.a ‘in Dadouel’; Gk.s ‘in the desert Doudael’. and throw him there. 14 Gk.s ‘and having gone there, throw him in’. 5And throw on him 15 Gk.a s ‘And place under him’. jagged and sharp stones, and cover him with darkness; and let him stay there for ever, and 6cover his face, that he may not see light, 16 Gk.a s ‘and let him not see light’. and that on the great day of judgement he may be hurled 17 Gk.a s ‘And on the day of the great (Gk.s om. ‘great’) judgement he will be hurled’. into the fire. 7And restore the earth 18 Gk.a ‘And the earth will be restored’. which the angels 19 Gk.s ‘the Watchers’. have ruined, and announce the restoration of the earth, 20 the restoration of the earth: Gk.s ‘the healing of the plague’. for I shall restore the earth, 21 for I shall restore the earth: GMUD′ ‘that the earth may be restored’ (lit. ‘that one may restore the earth’); Gk.a s ‘that they may heal the plague’. so that not all the sons of men shall be destroyed through the mystery of everything 22 D′ Gk.a ‘through the entire mystery’; Gk.s ‘through the mystery’. which the Watchers made known 23 Eth. ‘killed’; Gk.a ‘struck’; Gk.s ‘spoke’. All three are impossible, but Eth. and Gk.a probably derive from a confusion of the Aramaic verbs ‘to strike’ and ‘to show, make known’; hence the above translation. Gk.s ‘spoke’ is an ad hoc correction of an already corrupt text. and taught to their sons. 8And the whole earth has been ruined 24 Gk.a adds ‘having been corrupted’. by the teaching of the works of Azazel, 25 Gk.a s ‘by the works taught by Azael’. and against him 26 Gk.s ‘against it’. write down all sin. 9And the Lord said 27 Gk.s ‘and he said’. to Gabriel, Proceed 28 Gk.s adds ‘Gabriel’. against the bastards 29 Gk.s ‘the giants’. and the reprobates and against the sons of the fornicators, 30 Gk.a s ‘of fornication’. and destroy the sons of the fornicators and 31 the sons of the fornicators and: Gk.a s om.; GAK om. by hmt. ‘and destroy the sons of the fornicators’. the sons of the Watchers from amongst men. 32 Gk.s ‘the sons of men’. And send them out, and send them against one another, and let them destroy themselves in battle, 33 And send them out…in battle: Gk.a ‘Send them in a battle of destruction’; Gk.s ‘Send them against one another, some of them against the rest of them, in battle and in destruction.’ for they will not have length of days. 10And they will all petition you, but their fathers will gain nothing in respect of them, 34 And they…of them: Gk.a corrupt, but probably ‘And 〈no〉 petition will be granted to their fathers even in respect of them’; Gk.s ‘And no petition will be (lit. ‘is’) granted to their fathers’. for they hope for eternal life, 35 for eternal life: GMTUD′ Gk.a s ‘to live an eternal life’. and that each of them will live life for five hundred years. 11And the Lord said 36 Gk.a s ‘And he said’. to Michael, Go, 37 Go: some Eth. MSS om.; Gk.s adds ‘Michael’. inform 38 Gk.s ‘bind’. Semyaza and the others with him who have associated with the women 39 Gk.s ‘the daughters of men’. to corrupt themselves with them in all 40 Q Gk.a s om. their uncleanness. 12When 41 Eth.I Gk.a s ‘And when’. all 42 Gk.a s om., and so apparently Aram. their sons kill each other, and when 43 U Gk.a s om., and so apparently Aram. they see the destruction of their beloved ones, bind them for seventy generations under the hills 44 under the hills: Gk.a s ‘in the valleys’. of the earth until the day of their judgement and of their consummation, until the judgement which is for all eternity is accomplished. 13And in those days 45 And in those days: Gk.a s ‘Then’. they will lead them to the abyss of fire; in torment and in prison they will be shut up for all eternity. 46 in torment…all eternity: Gk.a s ‘and to torment and to the prison of eternal confinement’. 14And then he 47 i.e. Semyaza, but see below. will be burnt and from then on destroyed with them; together they will be bound until the end of all generations. 48 GMQT1UD′ Gk.a ‘And when anyone is burnt and destroyed from now on, he will be bound together with them until the end of all generations (Gk.a ‘the generation’)’; Gk.s ‘And whoever is condemned and destroyed from now on will be bound with them until the end of their generation’. Aram. ‘And whoever …’ agrees with Gk.s. 15And destroy all the souls of lust 49 Gk.a ‘the spirits of the reprobate’. and the sons of the Watchers, for they have wronged men. 16Destroy all wrong from the face of the earth, and every evil work will cease. 50 So GMQD′ and some Eth.II MSS: Gk.a and other Eth. MSS ‘and let every evil work cease’. And let the plant of righteousness and truth appear, and the deed will become a blessing; righteousness and truth 51 and the deed…and truth: GTU ‘and it will become a blessing; deeds of righteousness and truth’; Q corrupt; D′ Gk.a om. (hmt.). will they plant 52 Some Eth. MSS ‘will be planted’; D′ ‘will he plant’; M corrupt; Gk.a ‘will he plant for himself’, but most correct to ‘will be planted’. in joy for ever. 17And now all the righteous will be humble, 53 So Eth.II: Eth.I Gk.a Aram. ‘will escape’. and will live until they beget thousands; and all the days of their youth and their sabbaths 54 and their sabbaths: so Eth. Gk.a, but long recognised to be a mistranslation of an Aramaic ‘and their old age’; Aram. now confirms this. they will fulfil in peace. 18And in those days 55 And in those days: Gk.a ‘Then’. the whole earth will be tilled in righteousness, and all of it will be planted with trees, 56 and all…with trees: so Eth. and apparently Aram.; Gk.a ‘and a tree will be planted in it’. and it will be filled with blessing. 19And all pleasant trees they will plant on it, 57 And all…on it: Gk.a ‘And all the trees of the earth will rejoice; they will be planted’. and they will plant on it 58 on it: Gk.a om. vines, and the vine which is planted 59 Some Eth. MSS ‘which a man plants’. on it will produce fruit 60 GMQTD′ ‘wine’; U corrupt. in abundance; 61 and the vine…in abundance: Gk.a ‘and the vine which they plant, they will produce thousands of jars of wine’. and every seed which is sown on it, each measure will produce a thousand, and each measure of olives will produce ten baths of oil. 62 and every seed…of oil: Gk.a defective. 20And you, cleanse the earth from all wrong, 63 Gk.a ‘uncleanness’; D′ adds ‘and from all uncleanness’. and from all iniquity, and from all sin, and from all 64 from all: Gk.a om. impiety, and from all the uncleanness which is brought about on the earth; remove them from the earth. 65 and from all the uncleanness…from the earth: Gk.a ‘and wipe away all the uncleanness which is brought about on the earth’. 21And all the sons of men shall be righteous, 66 And all…be righteous: Gk.a om. In the remainder of the verse Gk.a has a strange word order and differs slightly from Eth. and all the nations shall serve and bless me, and all shall worship me. 22And the earth 67 Gk.a ‘And the whole earth’. will be cleansed from all corruption, and from all sin, and from all wrath, and from all torment; 68 and from all sin…all torment: Gk.a ‘and from all uncleanness and wrath and torment’. and I will not again send a flood 69 a flood: GMQT1UD′ Gk.a om. upon it 70 Gk.a ‘upon them’. for all generations for ever.

Notes:

1 Gk.a ‘Then the Most High talked about these things, the Great Holy One, and he spoke and talked’; Gk.s ‘Then the Most High talked, and the Great Holy One spoke’.

2 So Eth.II: D′ ‘Asuryal’; G ‘Asaryalyor’ and other Eth.I MSS similarly; Gk.a ‘Istrael’; Gk.s ‘Uriel’. All Eth. readings probably corruptions of ‘Istrael’.

3 and said to him: Eth.I Gk.a om.; Gk.s ‘saying’.

4 Eth.I prefixes ‘And’; Gk.s prefixes ‘Go to Noah and’.

5 and a deluge: Gk.s ‘And say to him that a deluge’.

6 D′ ‘and everything that is in it will be destroyed’; Gk.a ‘and it will destroy everything that is on it’; Gk.s ‘to destroy everything from the face of the earth’.

7 And now: Gk.a ‘And’; Gk.s om. and reads for this verse ‘Teach the righteous one, the son of Lamech, what he should do, and he will preserve his soul alive and will escape through the world, and from him a plant will be planted and will be established for all the generations of the world’.

8 for the whole earth: so Eth.II, but N adds ‘for ever’; Eth.I ‘for all generations’; Gk.a s ‘for all the generations of the world’.

9 Gk.a s ‘And he said’.

10 Gk.s prefixes ‘Go, Raphael, and’.

11 Gk.a s ‘Azael’.

12 by his hands and his feet: Gk.s ‘tie him hand and foot’.

13 Gk.a ‘in Dadouel’; Gk.s ‘in the desert Doudael’.

14 Gk.s ‘and having gone there, throw him in’.

15 Gk.a s ‘And place under him’.

16 Gk.a s ‘and let him not see light’.

17 Gk.a s ‘And on the day of the great (Gk.s om. ‘great’) judgement he will be hurled’.

18 Gk.a ‘And the earth will be restored’.

19 Gk.s ‘the Watchers’.

20 the restoration of the earth: Gk.s ‘the healing of the plague’.

21 for I shall restore the earth: GMUD′ ‘that the earth may be restored’ (lit. ‘that one may restore the earth’); Gk.a s ‘that they may heal the plague’.

22 D′ Gk.a ‘through the entire mystery’; Gk.s ‘through the mystery’.

23 Eth. ‘killed’; Gk.a ‘struck’; Gk.s ‘spoke’. All three are impossible, but Eth. and Gk.a probably derive from a confusion of the Aramaic verbs ‘to strike’ and ‘to show, make known’; hence the above translation. Gk.s ‘spoke’ is an ad hoc correction of an already corrupt text.

24 Gk.a adds ‘having been corrupted’.

25 Gk.a s ‘by the works taught by Azael’.

26 Gk.s ‘against it’.

27 Gk.s ‘and he said’.

28 Gk.s adds ‘Gabriel’.

29 Gk.s ‘the giants’.

30 Gk.a s ‘of fornication’.

31 the sons of the fornicators and: Gk.a s om.; GAK om. by hmt. ‘and destroy the sons of the fornicators’.

32 Gk.s ‘the sons of men’.

33 And send them out…in battle: Gk.a ‘Send them in a battle of destruction’; Gk.s ‘Send them against one another, some of them against the rest of them, in battle and in destruction.’

34 And they…of them: Gk.a corrupt, but probably ‘And 〈no〉 petition will be granted to their fathers even in respect of them’; Gk.s ‘And no petition will be (lit. ‘is’) granted to their fathers’.

35 for eternal life: GMTUD′ Gk.a s ‘to live an eternal life’.

36 Gk.a s ‘And he said’.

37 Go: some Eth. MSS om.; Gk.s adds ‘Michael’.

38 Gk.s ‘bind’.

39 Gk.s ‘the daughters of men’.

40 Q Gk.a s om.

41 Eth.I Gk.a s ‘And when’.

42 Gk.a s om., and so apparently Aram.

43 U Gk.a s om., and so apparently Aram.

44 under the hills: Gk.a s ‘in the valleys’.

45 And in those days: Gk.a s ‘Then’.

46 in torment…all eternity: Gk.a s ‘and to torment and to the prison of eternal confinement’.

47 i.e. Semyaza, but see below.

48 GMQT1UD′ Gk.a ‘And when anyone is burnt and destroyed from now on, he will be bound together with them until the end of all generations (Gk.a ‘the generation’)’; Gk.s ‘And whoever is condemned and destroyed from now on will be bound with them until the end of their generation’. Aram. ‘And whoever …’ agrees with Gk.s.

49 Gk.a ‘the spirits of the reprobate’.

50 So GMQD′ and some Eth.II MSS: Gk.a and other Eth. MSS ‘and let every evil work cease’.

51 and the deed…and truth: GTU ‘and it will become a blessing; deeds of righteousness and truth’; Q corrupt; D′ Gk.a om. (hmt.).

52 Some Eth. MSS ‘will be planted’; D′ ‘will he plant’; M corrupt; Gk.a ‘will he plant for himself’, but most correct to ‘will be planted’.

53 So Eth.II: Eth.I Gk.a Aram. ‘will escape’.

54 and their sabbaths: so Eth. Gk.a, but long recognised to be a mistranslation of an Aramaic ‘and their old age’; Aram. now confirms this.

55 And in those days: Gk.a ‘Then’.

56 and all…with trees: so Eth. and apparently Aram.; Gk.a ‘and a tree will be planted in it’.

57 And all…on it: Gk.a ‘And all the trees of the earth will rejoice; they will be planted’.

58 on it: Gk.a om.

59 Some Eth. MSS ‘which a man plants’.

60 GMQTD′ ‘wine’; U corrupt.

61 and the vine…in abundance: Gk.a ‘and the vine which they plant, they will produce thousands of jars of wine’.

62 and every seed…of oil: Gk.a defective.

63 Gk.a ‘uncleanness’; D′ adds ‘and from all uncleanness’.

64 from all: Gk.a om.

65 and from all the uncleanness…from the earth: Gk.a ‘and wipe away all the uncleanness which is brought about on the earth’.

66 And all…be righteous: Gk.a om. In the remainder of the verse Gk.a has a strange word order and differs slightly from Eth.

67 Gk.a ‘And the whole earth’.

68 and from all sin…all torment: Gk.a ‘and from all uncleanness and wrath and torment’.

69 a flood: GMQT1UD′ Gk.a om.

70 Gk.a ‘upon them’.

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