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The Apocryphal Old Testament Collection of the most important non-canonical Old Testament books designed for general use.

Chapter XXII

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Text Commentary

1And from there I went to another place, and he showed me in the west a large and high mountain, and a hard rock and four 2beautiful 1 beautiful: so Eth., but a misreading of the Greek word for ‘hollow’. places, and inside it was deep and wide and very smooth. 2 a large … very smooth: Gk.a ‘another large and high mountain, of hard rock. And there were four hollow places in it, deep and very smooth: three of them were dark, and one bright, and there was a spring of water in the middle of it. And I said’. How smooth is that which rolls, 3 is that which rolls: so Eth., but a mistranslation of the Greek; Gk.a ‘are these hollow places’. and deep and dark to look at! 3Then Raphael, one of the holy angels who was with me, answered me 4 me: GMQ2T1U Gk.a om. and said to me, These beautiful 5 beautiful: so Eth., but a misreading; Gk.a ‘hollow’. places are intended for this, that the spirits, the souls 6 GT1D′H Gk.a ‘the spirits of the souls’; Q corrupt; OB′ om. ‘the souls’. of the dead, might be gathered into them; for them 7 GQUD′ Gk.a ‘for this’; MT corrupt. they were created, 8 Gk.a (corrupt) ‘judged’. that here they might gather all the souls of the sons of men. 9 Gk.a ‘all the souls of men’; Aram. ‘[the soul]s of all the sons of men’. 4And these places they made where they will keep them 10 where they will keep them: Gk.a ‘for their reception’; Aram. uncertain, but probably ‘And behold, these are the pits for their prison house [which] they have thus made’. until the day of their judgement and until their appointed time – and that appointed time will be long 11 and that appointed time will be long: so Eth., but probably an attempt to deal with an impossible text; Gk.a has a dittograph of the previous phrase. – until the great judgement comes upon them. 12 and until their appointed time … upon them: so Eth., but QD′ have abbreviated texts; Gk.a ‘and until the appointed time and the time appointed at which the great judgement will be executed upon them’; Aram. ‘and until the appointed time of the day of the end of the great judgement which will be executed upon them’. 5And I saw the spirits of the sons of men who were dead, 13 And I saw … were dead: so Eth., but fairly clearly only one spirit was mentioned originally (cp. verses 6ff.); Gk.a corrupt, but perhaps read ‘I saw 〈the spirit〉 of a dead man complaining’; Aram. ‘There I saw the spirit of a dead man complaining’. and their voice reached heaven and complained. 14 and their voice … complained: so Eth. Gk.a, but Gk.a reads ‘his’ for ‘their’; Aram. ‘and his lamentation going up to heaven and crying out and complaining’. 6Then 15 Gk.a ‘And’. I asked Raphael, the angel 16 Aram. ‘the Watcher and holy one’. who was with me, and said to him, Whose is this spirit whose voice thus reaches heaven 17 heaven: so C′; all other Eth. MSS om. and complains? 18 Gk.a ‘Whose is this spirit which is complaining? Therefore his voice thus reaches and complains to heaven’. 7And he answered me and said to me, 19 and said to me: QD′ AD Gk.a om.; C′ om. ‘saying’. saying, This spirit is the one which came out of Abel whom Cain, his brother, killed. And he 20 Gk.a ‘Abel’. will complain about him until his 21 Eth.I ‘all his’. offspring is destroyed from the face of the earth, and from amongst the offspring of men his offspring perishes. 8Then I asked about him and 22 about him and: Gk.a om. about the judgement on all 23 about the judgement on all: so Eth.; Gk.a ‘about all the circular places’; both are perhaps corrupt for ‘about all the hollow places’. and I said, 24 and I said: GMQT1UD′ Gk.a om. Why is one separated from another? 9And he answered me and said to me, 25 and said to me: Gk.a ‘saying’. These three 26 three: so Eth. Gk.a, but we expect ‘four’ because four places are mentioned in verse 1 and four seem to be described in verses 9b–13. places were made in order that they might separate the spirits of the dead. And thus the souls 27 N ‘the spirits’. of the righteous have been separated; 28 C′ Gk.a ‘And thus a place has been separated for the souls (Gk.a ‘the spirits’) of the righteous’. this is the spring of water and on it is the light. 29 this is … the light: Gk.a ‘in which there is the bright spring of water’. 10Likewise 30 D′ Gk.a ‘And thus’. a place has been created for sinners 31 D′ ‘And thus the sinners have been separated’. when they die and are buried in the earth and judgement has not come upon them during their life. 11And here their souls 32 Gk.a ‘spirits’. will be separated for this great torment, until the great day of judgement and punishment and torment for those who curse for ever, and of vengeance on their souls, 33 for those … their souls: Gk.a in part corrupt, but perhaps read ‘for those who are cursed for ever, that there may be vengeance on their spirits’. and there he will bind them for ever. Verily he is from the beginning of the world. 34 Verily … the world: an Eth. gloss; Gk.a om. 12And thus a place has been separated for the souls 32 Gk.a ‘spirits’. of those who complain and give information about their destruction, when they were killed in the days of the sinners. 13Thus a place has been created for the souls 32 Gk.a ‘spirits’. of men who are not righteous, 35 Gk.a ‘will not be holy’. but sinners, accomplished in wrongdoing, 36 accomplished in wrongdoing: Gk.a ‘who will be impious’. and with the wrongdoers will be their lot. 37 Lit. ‘and with the wrongdoers they will be like them’; Gk.a ‘and of the lawless they will be companions’. But their souls will not be killed on the day of judgement, 38 Gk.a ‘But their spirits, because those who are afflicted here are punished less than them, will not be punished on the day of judgement’. nor will they rise from here. 14Then I blessed the Lord of Glory and said, Blessed be my Lord, the Lord of Glory and Righteousness, 39 GMTUD′ ‘Blessed by my Lord, the Lord of Righteousness’; Gk.a ‘Blessed are you, Lord of Righteousness’; Aram. ‘Blessed be the Judge of Righteousness’. who rules everything for ever. 40 Eth.I and some Eth.II MSS ‘who rules for ever’; Gk.a ‘who rules the world’.

Notes:

1 beautiful: so Eth., but a misreading of the Greek word for ‘hollow’.

2 a large … very smooth: Gk.a ‘another large and high mountain, of hard rock. And there were four hollow places in it, deep and very smooth: three of them were dark, and one bright, and there was a spring of water in the middle of it. And I said’.

3 is that which rolls: so Eth., but a mistranslation of the Greek; Gk.aare these hollow places’.

4 me: GMQ2T1U Gk.a om.

5 beautiful: so Eth., but a misreading; Gk.a ‘hollow’.

6 GT1D′H Gk.a ‘the spirits of the souls’; Q corrupt; OB′ om. ‘the souls’.

7 GQUD′ Gk.a ‘for this’; MT corrupt.

8 Gk.a (corrupt) ‘judged’.

9 Gk.a ‘all the souls of men’; Aram. ‘[the soul]s of all the sons of men’.

10 where they will keep them: Gk.a ‘for their reception’; Aram. uncertain, but probably ‘And behold, these are the pits for their prison house [which] they have thus made’.

11 and that appointed time will be long: so Eth., but probably an attempt to deal with an impossible text; Gk.a has a dittograph of the previous phrase.

12 and until their appointed time … upon them: so Eth., but QD′ have abbreviated texts; Gk.a ‘and until the appointed time and the time appointed at which the great judgement will be executed upon them’; Aram. ‘and until the appointed time of the day of the end of the great judgement which will be executed upon them’.

13 And I saw … were dead: so Eth., but fairly clearly only one spirit was mentioned originally (cp. verses 6ff.); Gk.a corrupt, but perhaps read ‘I saw 〈the spirit〉 of a dead man complaining’; Aram. ‘There I saw the spirit of a dead man complaining’.

14 and their voice … complained: so Eth. Gk.a, but Gk.a reads ‘his’ for ‘their’; Aram. ‘and his lamentation going up to heaven and crying out and complaining’.

15 Gk.a ‘And’.

16 Aram. ‘the Watcher and holy one’.

17 heaven: so C′; all other Eth. MSS om.

18 Gk.a ‘Whose is this spirit which is complaining? Therefore his voice thus reaches and complains to heaven’.

19 and said to me: QD′ AD Gk.a om.; C′ om. ‘saying’.

20 Gk.a ‘Abel’.

21 Eth.I ‘all his’.

22 about him and: Gk.a om.

23 about the judgement on all: so Eth.; Gk.a ‘about all the circular places’; both are perhaps corrupt for ‘about all the hollow places’.

24 and I said: GMQT1UD′ Gk.a om.

25 and said to me: Gk.a ‘saying’.

26 three: so Eth. Gk.a, but we expect ‘four’ because four places are mentioned in verse 1 and four seem to be described in verses 9b–13.

27 N ‘the spirits’.

28 C′ Gk.a ‘And thus a place has been separated for the souls (Gk.a ‘the spirits’) of the righteous’.

29 this is … the light: Gk.a ‘in which there is the bright spring of water’.

30 D′ Gk.a ‘And thus’.

31 D′ ‘And thus the sinners have been separated’.

32 Gk.a ‘spirits’.

33 for those … their souls: Gk.a in part corrupt, but perhaps read ‘for those who are cursed for ever, that there may be vengeance on their spirits’.

34 Verily … the world: an Eth. gloss; Gk.a om.

35 Gk.a ‘will not be holy’.

36 accomplished in wrongdoing: Gk.a ‘who will be impious’.

37 Lit. ‘and with the wrongdoers they will be like them’; Gk.a ‘and of the lawless they will be companions’.

38 Gk.a ‘But their spirits, because those who are afflicted here are punished less than them, will not be punished on the day of judgement’.

39 GMTUD′ ‘Blessed by my Lord, the Lord of Righteousness’; Gk.a ‘Blessed are you, Lord of Righteousness’; Aram. ‘Blessed be the Judge of Righteousness’.

40 Eth.I and some Eth.II MSS ‘who rules for ever’; Gk.a ‘who rules the world’.

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