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The Apocryphal Old Testament Collection of the most important non-canonical Old Testament books designed for general use.

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Text Commentary

1In the five hundredth year, in the seventh month, on the fourteenth day of the month in the life of Enoch. In that parable I saw how the heaven of heavens was shaken violently, and the host of the Most High and the angels, a thousand thousands and ten thousand times ten thousand, were extremely disturbed. 2And then I saw the Head of Days sitting 1 GMT1UD′ ‘And the Head of Days was sitting’ (M om. ‘And’); Q ‘Then I saw the Head of Days sit’. on the throne of his glory, and the angels and the righteous were standing around him. 3And a great trembling seized me, and fear took hold of me, 2 MT1UD′ om. ‘took hold of me’; Q ‘And trembling seized me, and great fear seized me and took hold of me’. and my loins collapsed and gave way, and my whole being 3 and my whole being: DY om. ‘and’; FNX ‘and my mind’. melted, 4 and my loins…melted: G ‘and my loins gave way, and my whole being fell’; MQD′ ‘and my loins gave way, and my (M om. ‘my’) mind’; T ‘and my loins collapsed and gave way, and my whole being’; U ‘and my loins collapsed, and my whole being gave way’. and I fell upon my face. 4And the holy Michael sent another holy angel, one of the holy angels, 5 GMTUD′ ‘And Michael sent another angel from among the holy ones’; Q ‘And the holy angel Michael, one of the holy ones, was sent’. Some Eth.II MSS read ‘one of the holy ones’ for ‘one of the holy angels’. and he raised me; and when he raised me, 6 and when he raised me: GMQT1U om. (hmt.). my spirit 7 Q ‘soul’. returned, for I had been unable to endure the sight of that host, and the disturbance, and the shaking of heaven. 5And the holy 8 the holy: Eth. I om. Michael said to me, What sight has disturbed you like this? Until today has the day of his mercy lasted, and he has been merciful and long suffering towards those who dwell upon the dry ground. 6And when the day, and the power, and the punishment and the judgement come, which the Lord of Spirits has prepared for those who worship 9 U ‘who do not worship’. the righteous judgement, 10 judgement: so all Eth. MSS, but possibly a mistranslation of an original ‘judge’. and for those who deny the righteous judgement, 11 and for those…judgement: UDE om. (hmt.); Q ‘and for those who deny it (? ‘him’)’. and for those who take his name in vain – and that day has been prepared, for the chosen a covenant, but for the sinners a visitation. 7And on that day two monsters 12 DOY ‘two lions’; D′ ‘two tigers’; G ‘two large monsters’. will be separated 13 M ‘were separated’. from one another; a female monster, whose name is Leviathan, to dwell in the depths of the sea above 8the springs of the waters; and the name of the male is Behemoth, who occupies with his breast an immense desert 14 an immense desert: lit. ‘a desert that cannot be seen’. In the light of the LXX of Gen. i.2 perhaps to be translated ‘a waste desert’. named Dendayn, 15 GTUD′ ‘Dundayn’ or similar; Q ‘Yendayn’. on the east of the garden where the chosen and righteous dwell, 16 MT1UD′ ‘where the chosen and righteous are’. where my great-grandfather 17 B ‘your great-grandfather’; C′ ‘my great-grandfather Enoch’. was received, 18 where my…received: D′ ‘where the man was transformed’. who was 19 who was: GMT1UD′ om. the seventh from Adam, the first man whom the Lord of Spirits made. 9And I asked that 20 GMT1UD′N ‘the’; DHOB′ ‘this’. other angel to show me the power of those monsters, how they were separated on one 21 D′ ‘that’. day and thrown, one into the depths of the sea, and the other onto the dry ground of the desert. 10And he said to me, Son of Man, you here wish to know what is secret. 11And the other angel spoke to me, 22 to me: D′ om.; GQT1U ‘to him’. the one who went with me and showed me what is secret, what is first and last in heaven, in the heights, and under 23 So GMD′: all other MSS ‘on’. the dry ground, in the depths, and at the ends of heaven, and at the foundations of heaven, and in 24 in: G om. the 12storehouses of the winds; 25 GQT ‘of the spirits’ (but here and in the next verse it is possible that the common word ‘spirit’ has the meaning ‘wind’); D′ ‘of the Lord of Spirits’. and how the spirits 26 Or ‘the winds’; U om. are distributed, and how they are weighed, and how the springs and the winds 27 the springs and the winds: so Eth.II; Eth.I (U corruptly) ‘the springs of the spirits (or ‘winds’)’, but possibly a mistake for ‘the gates of the winds’. are counted according to the power of their spirit; 28 Or ‘according to the power of the wind’. and the power of the light of the moon 29 All MSS add ‘and how there is a power of righteousness’ (or ‘and according to the power of righteousness’). The words are unintelligible, but are possibly a gloss on ‘according to the power of their spirit’. …and the divisions of the stars according to 13their names, and how all the divisions are made; and the thunder 30 D′ ‘and how all the divisions are made in the thunder’. according to the places where it falls; and all the divisions that are made in lightning that it may flash, and its hosts, how they quickly 14obey; for the thunder has fixed intervals which have been given to its sound for waiting; and the thunder and the lightning are not separate, and although not one, through a spirit the two of them 15move inseparably; for when the lightning flashes, the thunder utters its voice, and the spirit at the proper time 31 at the proper time: or ‘immediately’. causes it to rest, and divides equally between them; for the storehouse of the times for their occurrence is like that of the sand, and each of them at the proper time 32 at the proper time: GMTUD′ om. is held by a rein, and turned back by the power of the spirit, and likewise driven forward, according to the number of the regions of the earth. 16And the spirit of the sea is male and strong, and according to the power of its strength the spirit turns it back with a rein, and likewise it is driven forward and scattered amongst all the mountains of the earth. 17And the spirit of the hoar-frost is its own angel; and the spirit of the hail is a good angel. 18And the spirit of the snow has withdrawn because of its power, and it has a special spirit; and that which rises from it is like smoke, and its name is frost. 19And the spirit of the mist is not associated with them 33 is not…them: Q ‘joins with it’; D′ ‘does not dwell with them’. in their storehouses, but has a special storehouse; for its course is glorious 34 Lit. ‘in glory’ or ‘possesses glory’, but the meaning is obscure. both in light and in darkness, and in winter and in summer, and in its storehouse is an angel. 35 and in its storehouse…angel: so T1U; T2 ‘and in its storehouse is light’; GMQD′ ‘and its storehouse is an angel’; Eth.II ‘and its storehouse is light, and it is its angel’. 20The spirit of the dew has its dwelling at the ends of heaven, and it is connected with the storehouses of the rain; and its course is in winter and in summer, and its clouds and the clouds of the mist are associated, and one gives to the other. 21And when the spirit of the rain moves from its storehouse, the angels come and open the storehouse, and bring it out; and when it is scattered over all the dry ground, it joins with all the 22water that is on the dry ground; and whenever it joins with the water that is on the dry ground, 36 and whenever…dry ground: QADOYB′C′ om. (probably a dittograph). If not, the apodosis of the sentence has been lost. …for the waters are for those who dwell upon the dry ground, for they are nourishment for the dry ground from the Most High who is in 37 Some Eth. MSS ‘from’. heaven; therefore there is a fixed measure for the rain, and the angels comprehend it. 23All these things I saw towards the Garden of Righteousness. 24And the angel of peace who was with me said to me, These two monsters, prepared in accordance with the greatness of the Lord, 38 D′ ‘prepared for the great day of the Lord’. will be fed 39 G(?)D′ ‘will provide food’ (but could be impersonal with a passive sense ‘will be fed’); Q corrupt, but perhaps ‘will feed them’. that the punishment of the Lord 40 Eth.I ‘the Lord of Spirits’. BCXC′ add ‘may not be’; E adds ‘may not come’. D′ (probably correctly) continues for the remainder of the chapter, ‘may rest upon them that the punishment of the Lord of Spirits may not come in vain. And it will kill children with their mothers and children with their fathers, when the punishment of the Lord of Spirits rests upon all. Afterwards the judgement etc.’ In the other MSS the words ‘may rest upon them that the punishment of the Lord of Spirits may not come’ seem to have been omitted by mistake. The correction of the mistake led to the text printed above, but the overfull text of GMQ (cp. note 43) supports D′. …in vain. And children will be killed 41 GQTU ‘And it will kill children’. with their mothers, and sons 42 GMTU ‘children’. with their fathers. 25When the punishment of the Lord of Spirits rests upon them, it will remain resting that the punishment of the Lord of Spirits may not come in vain 43 As part of their correction GMQ repeat here ‘And it will kill children with their mothers and children with their fathers when the punishment of the Lord of Spirits rests’ (cp. D′, note 40). upon these. Afterwards the judgement will be according to his mercy and his patience.

Notes:

1 GMT1UD′ ‘And the Head of Days was sitting’ (M om. ‘And’); Q ‘Then I saw the Head of Days sit’.

2 MT1UD′ om. ‘took hold of me’; Q ‘And trembling seized me, and great fear seized me and took hold of me’.

3 and my whole being: DY om. ‘and’; FNX ‘and my mind’.

4 and my loins…melted: G ‘and my loins gave way, and my whole being fell’; MQD′ ‘and my loins gave way, and my (M om. ‘my’) mind’; T ‘and my loins collapsed and gave way, and my whole being’; U ‘and my loins collapsed, and my whole being gave way’.

5 GMTUD′ ‘And Michael sent another angel from among the holy ones’; Q ‘And the holy angel Michael, one of the holy ones, was sent’. Some Eth.II MSS read ‘one of the holy ones’ for ‘one of the holy angels’.

6 and when he raised me: GMQT1U om. (hmt.).

7 Q ‘soul’.

8 the holy: Eth. I om.

9 U ‘who do not worship’.

10 judgement: so all Eth. MSS, but possibly a mistranslation of an original ‘judge’.

11 and for those…judgement: UDE om. (hmt.); Q ‘and for those who deny it (? ‘him’)’.

12 DOY ‘two lions’; D′ ‘two tigers’; G ‘two large monsters’.

13 M ‘were separated’.

14 an immense desert: lit. ‘a desert that cannot be seen’. In the light of the LXX of Gen. i.2 perhaps to be translated ‘a waste desert’.

15 GTUD′ ‘Dundayn’ or similar; Q ‘Yendayn’.

16 MT1UD′ ‘where the chosen and righteous are’.

17 B ‘your great-grandfather’; C′ ‘my great-grandfather Enoch’.

18 where my…received: D′ ‘where the man was transformed’.

19 who was: GMT1UD′ om.

20 GMT1UD′N ‘the’; DHOB′ ‘this’.

21 D′ ‘that’.

22 to me: D′ om.; GQT1U ‘to him’.

23 So GMD′: all other MSS ‘on’.

24 in: G om.

25 GQT ‘of the spirits’ (but here and in the next verse it is possible that the common word ‘spirit’ has the meaning ‘wind’); D′ ‘of the Lord of Spirits’.

26 Or ‘the winds’; U om.

27 the springs and the winds: so Eth.II; Eth.I (U corruptly) ‘the springs of the spirits (or ‘winds’)’, but possibly a mistake for ‘the gates of the winds’.

28 Or ‘according to the power of the wind’.

29 All MSS add ‘and how there is a power of righteousness’ (or ‘and according to the power of righteousness’). The words are unintelligible, but are possibly a gloss on ‘according to the power of their spirit’.

30 D′ ‘and how all the divisions are made in the thunder’.

31 at the proper time: or ‘immediately’.

32 at the proper time: GMTUD′ om.

33 is not…them: Q ‘joins with it’; D′ ‘does not dwell with them’.

34 Lit. ‘in glory’ or ‘possesses glory’, but the meaning is obscure.

35 and in its storehouse…angel: so T1U; T2 ‘and in its storehouse is light’; GMQD′ ‘and its storehouse is an angel’; Eth.II ‘and its storehouse is light, and it is its angel’.

36 and whenever…dry ground: QADOYB′C′ om. (probably a dittograph). If not, the apodosis of the sentence has been lost.

37 Some Eth. MSS ‘from’.

38 D′ ‘prepared for the great day of the Lord’.

39 G(?)D′ ‘will provide food’ (but could be impersonal with a passive sense ‘will be fed’); Q corrupt, but perhaps ‘will feed them’.

40 Eth.I ‘the Lord of Spirits’. BCXC′ add ‘may not be’; E adds ‘may not come’. D′ (probably correctly) continues for the remainder of the chapter, ‘may rest upon them that the punishment of the Lord of Spirits may not come in vain. And it will kill children with their mothers and children with their fathers, when the punishment of the Lord of Spirits rests upon all. Afterwards the judgement etc.’ In the other MSS the words ‘may rest upon them that the punishment of the Lord of Spirits may not come’ seem to have been omitted by mistake. The correction of the mistake led to the text printed above, but the overfull text of GMQ (cp. note 43) supports D′.

41 GQTU ‘And it will kill children’.

42 GMTU ‘children’.

43 As part of their correction GMQ repeat here ‘And it will kill children with their mothers and children with their fathers when the punishment of the Lord of Spirits rests’ (cp. D′, note 40).

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