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The Apocryphal Old Testament Collection of the most important non-canonical Old Testament books designed for general use.

Chapter LXIX

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Text Commentary

1And after this judgement they will terrify them and make them tremble, for they have shown this 1 T om.; Q ‘this judgement’. to those who dwell upon the dry ground. 2And behold 2 behold: D′ adds ‘I will name’; GM apparently adds corruptions of ‘I will name’. the names of those angels. And these are their names: the first of them is Semyaza, and the second Artaqifa, and the third Armen, and the fourth Kokabiel, and the fifth Turiel, and the sixth Ramiel, and the seventh Daniel, and the eighth Nuqael, and the ninth Baraqiel, and the tenth Azazel, the eleventh Armaros, the twelfth Batriel, the thirteenth Basasael, the fourteenth Ananel, the fifteenth Turiel, the sixteenth Samsiel, the seventeenth Yetarel, the eighteenth Tumiel, the nineteenth Turiel, the twentieth Rumiel, the twenty-first Azazel. 3And these are the chiefs of their angels, and the names of their 3 and the names of their: Eth.I EH ‘and their names, and their’. leaders of hundreds, and their leaders of fifties and their leaders of tens. 4The name of the first is Yequn, and this is the one who led astray all the children of the holy 4 holy: GMQUD′ and some Eth.II MSS om.: it is possible that the text derives from a false translation of ‘all the (holy) children of God’ (i.e. ‘all the (holy) angels). N ‘all the children of the angels of the Lord’. angels; and he brought them down onto the dry ground, and led them astray through the daughters of men. 5And the name of the second is Asbeel: this one suggested 5 QD′ ‘recommended’. an evil plan to the children of the holy angels, 6 Possibly a false translation of ‘to the holy children of God’ (cp. note 4). and led them astray, so that they corrupted their bodies with the daughters of men. 6And the name of the third is Gadreel: this is the one who showed all the deadly blows to the sons of men; and he led astray Eve, and he showed the weapons of death to the children of men, the shield and the breastplate and the sword for slaughter, and all the weapons of death to the sons of men. 7And from his 7 QD′ ‘their’. hand they have gone out against those who dwell upon the dry ground, from that time 8 GMTUD′ ‘day’. and for ever and ever. 8And the name of the fourth is Penemue: this one showed the sons of men the bitter and the sweet, and showed them all the secrets of their wisdom. 9He taught men the art of writing with ink and paper, and through this many have gone astray from eternity to eternity, and to this day. 10For men were not created for this, that they should confirm their faith like this with pen and ink. 11For men were created no differently from the angels, that they might remain righteous and pure, 9 GMTUD′ ‘pure and righteous’; Q ‘pure and holy’. and death, which destroys everything, would not have touched them; but through this knowledge of theirs they are being destroyed, and through this power it 10 i.e. death. is consuming me. 11 D′ ‘us’. 12And the name of the fifth is Kasdeyae: this one showed the sons of men all the evil blows of the spirits and of the demons, and the blows which attack the embryo in the womb so that it miscarries, and the blows which attack the soul, the bite of the serpent and the blows which occur at midday, the son of the serpent who is … strong. 12 The text is awkward; in full it reads ‘whose name is Tabaet’. I have omitted ‘name’ (which could easily have come in by mistake) and take ‘Tabaet’ as the word meaning ‘male’ or ‘strong’. But the passage remains obscure. 13And this is the task 13 Eth. ‘number’, but Charles's suggestion that the translation is based on a misreading of an original ‘task’ is very plausible. of Kesbeel, the chief of the oath, who showed the oath to the holy ones when he dwelt on high in glory, and its 14 Or ‘his’. name is Beqa. 14And this one told the holy 15 the holy: Eth. I om. Michael that he should show him 16 So GMTUD′: Q om.; Eth.II ‘them’. the 17 MTD′ENC′ ‘his’. secret name, that they might mention it in the oath, 18 that they … the oath: so GQ; T ‘that they might mention that secret name’; MUD′ ‘that they might mention that (M ‘evil and’) secret name, that they might mention it in the oath’; Eth.II ‘that they might see that secret name, that they might mention it in the oath’. so that those who showed the sons of men everything which is secret trembled before that name and oath. 15And this is the power of this oath, for it is powerful and strong; and he placed this oath Akae 19 Since verses 13f. and verses 15–25 appear to deal with two different oaths, it is possible that the obscure name ‘Akae’ (so all MSS except QD′) is a corruption of the word ‘other’, viz. ‘and he placed this other oath …’ Q(?) ‘this engraved oath’; D′ ‘this evil oath’. in the charge of the holy 15 the holy: Eth. I om. Michael. 16And these are the secrets of this oath … and they are strong 20 and they are strong (or ‘and they were made firm’): so MT Eth.II; but the text is not entirely intelligible as it stands and it is possible that something like ‘All things were created’ has dropped out from before ‘and they are strong’ (but see note 21). GQU ‘and it is strong’; D′ ‘and its strength’. through his oath, and heaven was suspended 21 QH ‘And these are the secrets of this oath, and they are (Q ‘it is’) strong: through his oath heaven was suspended’, and other MSS perhaps to be translated similarly. before the world was created and for ever. 17And through it the earth 22 GMTU ‘through it, and the earth’. was founded upon the water, and from the hidden recesses of the mountains 23 Some Eth. MSS ‘the hidden mountains’. come beautiful waters 24 beautiful waters: ULYA′ ‘waters for the living’; BCX ‘beautiful waters for the living’. from the creation of the world and for ever. 18And through that oath the sea was created, and as its foundation, for the time of anger, he placed for it the sand, and it does not go beyond it from the creation of the world and for ever. 19And through that oath the deeps were made firm, and they stand and do not move from their place from the creation of the world and for ever. 20And through that oath the sun and the moon complete their course and do not transgress their command from the creation of the world and for ever. 25 from the creation … for ever: M om.; GTU om. ‘and for ever’. 21And through that oath the stars complete their course, and he calls their names, 26 D′ ‘and they call their names’; Q ‘they are called’. and they answer 22him 27 D′ ‘them’. from the creation of the world and for ever; and likewise the spirits of the water, of the winds, and of all the breezes, and their paths, according to all the groups of the spirits. 23And there are kept the storehouses of the sound of the thunder and of the light of the lightning; 28 the storehouses … lightning: Eth.I ‘the sound of the thunder and the light of the lightning’. and there are kept the storehouses of the hail and the hoar-frost, 29 Eth.I ‘and the storehouses of the hoar-frost’. and the storehouses of the mist, and the storehouses of the rain and dew. 24And all these make their confession and give thanks before the Lord of Spirits and sing praises with all their power; and their food consists of all their thanksgiving, and they give thanks and praise and exalt in the name of 30 in the name of: D′ om.; QN om. ‘in’. the Lord of Spirits for ever and ever. 25And this oath is strong over them, and through it they are kept safe, and their paths are kept safe, and their courses are not disturbed. 26And they had great joy, and they blessed and praised and exalted because the name of that Son of 31 Son of: MTUD′ om. Man had been revealed to them. 27And he sat on the throne of his glory, and the whole judgement 32 Lit. ‘and the sum of the judgement’. was given to the Son of Man, 33 And he sat … Son of Man: D′ om. and he will cause the sinners to pass away and be destroyed from the face of the earth. 34 and he will cause … the earth: D′ ‘and he will not pass away nor be destroyed from the face of the earth’; GMTU ‘and he (? ‘it’) will pass away and be destroyed from the face of the earth’; Q ‘and the sinners of the earth have passed away from before his face’. 28And those who led astray the world will be bound in chains, and will be shut up in the assembly-place of their destruction, and all their works will pass away from the face of the earth. 29And from then on there will be nothing corruptible, 35 D′ ‘there will not be this corruption’. for that Son of Man has appeared and has sat on the throne of his glory, and everything evil will pass away and go from before him; and the word of that Son of 36 Son of: B om. Man 37 Man: GN ‘a woman’. will be strong 38 and the word … be strong: so T and some Eth.II MSS; other MSS ‘and they (AD′ ‘he’) will speak to that Son of Man, and he will be strong’. before the Lord of Spirits. This is the third 39 EFHNP2 om. parable of Enoch.

Notes:

1 T om.; Q ‘this judgement’.

2 behold: D′ adds ‘I will name’; GM apparently adds corruptions of ‘I will name’.

3 and the names of their: Eth.I EH ‘and their names, and their’.

4 holy: GMQUD′ and some Eth.II MSS om.: it is possible that the text derives from a false translation of ‘all the (holy) children of God’ (i.e. ‘all the (holy) angels). N ‘all the children of the angels of the Lord’.

5 QD′ ‘recommended’.

6 Possibly a false translation of ‘to the holy children of God’ (cp. note 4).

7 QD′ ‘their’.

8 GMTUD′ ‘day’.

9 GMTUD′ ‘pure and righteous’; Q ‘pure and holy’.

10 i.e. death.

11 D′ ‘us’.

12 The text is awkward; in full it reads ‘whose name is Tabaet’. I have omitted ‘name’ (which could easily have come in by mistake) and take ‘Tabaet’ as the word meaning ‘male’ or ‘strong’. But the passage remains obscure.

13 Eth. ‘number’, but Charles's suggestion that the translation is based on a misreading of an original ‘task’ is very plausible.

14 Or ‘his’.

15 the holy: Eth. I om.

16 So GMTUD′: Q om.; Eth.II ‘them’.

17 MTD′ENC′ ‘his’.

18 that they … the oath: so GQ; T ‘that they might mention that secret name’; MUD′ ‘that they might mention that (M ‘evil and’) secret name, that they might mention it in the oath’; Eth.II ‘that they might see that secret name, that they might mention it in the oath’.

19 Since verses 13f. and verses 15–25 appear to deal with two different oaths, it is possible that the obscure name ‘Akae’ (so all MSS except QD′) is a corruption of the word ‘other’, viz. ‘and he placed this other oath …’ Q(?) ‘this engraved oath’; D′ ‘this evil oath’.

20 and they are strong (or ‘and they were made firm’): so MT Eth.II; but the text is not entirely intelligible as it stands and it is possible that something like ‘All things were created’ has dropped out from before ‘and they are strong’ (but see note 21). GQU ‘and it is strong’; D′ ‘and its strength’.

21 QH ‘And these are the secrets of this oath, and they are (Q ‘it is’) strong: through his oath heaven was suspended’, and other MSS perhaps to be translated similarly.

22 GMTU ‘through it, and the earth’.

23 Some Eth. MSS ‘the hidden mountains’.

24 beautiful waters: ULYA′ ‘waters for the living’; BCX ‘beautiful waters for the living’.

25 from the creation … for ever: M om.; GTU om. ‘and for ever’.

26 D′ ‘and they call their names’; Q ‘they are called’.

27 D′ ‘them’.

28 the storehouses … lightning: Eth.I ‘the sound of the thunder and the light of the lightning’.

29 Eth.I ‘and the storehouses of the hoar-frost’.

30 in the name of: D′ om.; QN om. ‘in’.

31 Son of: MTUD′ om.

32 Lit. ‘and the sum of the judgement’.

33 And he sat … Son of Man: D′ om.

34 and he will cause … the earth: D′ ‘and he will not pass away nor be destroyed from the face of the earth’; GMTU ‘and he (? ‘it’) will pass away and be destroyed from the face of the earth’; Q ‘and the sinners of the earth have passed away from before his face’.

35 D′ ‘there will not be this corruption’.

36 Son of: B om.

37 Man: GN ‘a woman’.

38 and the word … be strong: so T and some Eth.II MSS; other MSS ‘and they (AD′ ‘he’) will speak to that Son of Man, and he will be strong’.

39 EFHNP2 om.

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