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The Oxford Bible Commentary Line-by-line commentary for the New Revised Standard Version Bible.



Bensley, R. L. (1875), The Missing Fragment of the Latin Translation of the Fourth Book of Ezra (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

———(1895), The Fourth Book of Ezra, with an introduction by M. R. James, Texts and Studies, 3/2 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Bergren, T. A. (1990), Fifth Ezra: The Text, Origin and Early History, Septuagint and Cognate Studies, 25 (Atlanta: Scholars Press).

Box, G. H. (1912), The Ezra Apocalypse (London: Isaac Pitman & Sons).

Breech, E. (1973), ‘These Fragments I Have Shored Against My Ruins: The Form and Function of 4 Ezra’, JBL 92: 267–74.

Casey, M. (1979), Son of Man: The Interpretation and Influence of Daniel 7 (London: SPCK).

Coggins, R. J., and Knibb, M. A. (1979), The First and Second Books of Esdras, Cambridge Bible Commentary on the NEB (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Collins, J. J. (1995), The Scepter and the Star: The Messiahs of the Dead Sea Scrolls and other Ancient Literature, B. Reference Library (New York: Doubleday).

Eissfeldt, O. (1966), The Old Testament: An Introduction (Oxford: Basil Blackwell).

Emerton, J. A. (1958), ‘The Origin of the Son of Man Imagery’, JTS 9: 225–42.

Essler, P. F. (1994), ‘The Social Function of 4 Ezra’, JSNT 53: 99–123.

Grabbe, L. L. (1981), ‘Chronography in 4 Ezra and 2 Baruch’, SBL Seminar Papers, ed. K. H. Richards (Missoula, Mont.: Scholars Press), 49–63.

———(1989) ‘The Social Setting of Early Jewish Apocalypticism’, JSP 4: 27–47.

Hayman, A. P. (1973), The Disputation of Sergius the Stylite Against a Jew, CSCO 338–9.

———(1975), ‘The Problem of Pseudonymity in the Ezra Apocalypse’, JSJ 6: 47–56.

———(1976), ‘Rabbinic Judaism and the Problem of Evil’, SJT 29: 461–76.

———(1984), ‘The Fall, Freewill and Human Responsibility in Rabbinic Judaism’, SJT 37: 13–22.

———(1991), ‘Monotheism—A Misused Word in Jewish Studies’, JJS 42: 1–15.

———(1998), ‘The Man from the Sea in 4 Ezra 13’, JJS 49: 1–17.

Humphrey, E. M. (1995), The Ladies and the Cities: Transformation and Apocalyptic Identity in Joseph and Asenath, 4 Ezra, the Apocalypse and the Shepherd of Hermas, JSP Suppl. Ser. 17 (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press).

Kraft, R. A. (1986), ‘Towards Assessing the Latin Text of “5 Ezra”: The “Christian” Connection’, HTR 79: 158–69.

Longenecker, B. W. (1991), Eschatology and the Covenant: A Comparison of 4 Ezra and Romans 1–11 (JSNTSup 57 (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press).

———(1995), 2 Esdras (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press).

Martinez, F. G. (1994), The Dead Sea Scrolls Translated: The Qumran Texts in English (Leiden: Brill).

Moore, G. F. (1927), Judaism (2 vols.; Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press).

Myers, J. M. (1974), I and II Esdras, AB 42.

O'Neill, J. C. (1991), ‘The Desolate House and the New Kingdom of Israel: Jewish Oracles of Ezra in 2 Esdras 1–2’, in Templum Amicitae: Essays on the Second Temple presented to Ernst Bammel, ed. W. Horbury, JSOTSup 48 (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press), 226–36.

Rosenbaum, I. J. (1976), The Holocaust and Halakah (New York: Ktav).

Segal, A. F. (1977), Two Powers in Heaven: Early Rabbinic Reports About Christianity and Gnosticism, SJLA (Leiden: Brill).

Simon, M. (1986), Verus Israel, trans. H. McKeating, Littman Library (Oxford: Oxford University Press); original edn. (Paris: 1964).

Stanton, G. N. (1977), ‘5 Ezra and Matthean Christianity in the Second Century’, JTS 28: 67–83.

Stone, M. E. (1990), Fourth Ezra, Hermeneia: A Critical and Historical Commentary on the Bible (Minneapolis: Fortress).

Thompson, A. L. (1977), Responsibility for Evil in the Theodicy of IV Ezra, SBL dissertation series 29 (Missoula, Mont.: Scholars Press).

Violet, B. (1924), Die Apokalypsen des Esra und des Baruch in deutscher Gestalt, GCS 32 (Leipzig: Hinrichs).

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