Reuben was firstborn (Gen 29.31–30.21; 35.23–26; 46.8–9; Ex 1.2; 6.14; Num 26.5; Ezek 48.31–35
), but he does not appear first in the Chronicler's genealogies.
Joseph, firstborn of Rachel, rather than Reuben, firstborn of Leah, attained to the birthright because Reuben had sexual relations
with Jacob's concubine Bilhah (Gen 35.22; 49.4
A ruler came from him, the writer alludes to David's kingship, which eventually encompassed all twelve tribes (
28.4; 1 Sam 13.14; 25.30; Mic 5.2
The Chronicler derives this list from Num 26.5–6
. Carmi is one of the Reubenite clans with possible ties to Judah (Gen 46.9; Ex 6.14; Num 26.6; Josh 7.1,18,24,26; 1 Chr 2.7; 4.1
In contrast to Kings, which largely loses its concentration upon individual tribes in its coverage of the dual monarchies,
the Chronicler's history maintains a continuous interest in the fate of individual tribes. Tilgath‐pilneser, the Chronicler's spelling (
5.26; 2 Chr 28.20
) of Tiglath‐pileser (III), King of Assyria (745–727 BCE); cf. 2 Kings 15.29
In this case, Gilead refers to the territory east of the Jordan, which is south of the Jabbok and north of the Arnon. There is some overlap with
Gad's territorial holdings in Josh 13
The days of Saul, who was the first king of Israel, in the late eleventh century BCE.
Like the Reubenites, the Gadites were located east of the Jordan River.
Rather than signifying a pasture land, Heb “migrash” means the belt of land or open space outside a town or a sanctuary. Sharon refers here not to the (coastal) Sharon plain, the common designation of Sharon in the Bible, but to the town of Sharon in
Transjordan, a place also mentioned in the Moabite Mesha inscription (line 13).
King Jotham of Judah (759–743 BCE) and King Jeroboam (II) of Israel (788–747 BCE).
In some traditions (Num 32.1–42; Deut 3.12–16; 29.6–7; Josh 13.8–31
) and once elsewhere in Chronicles (1 Chr 12.38
), Reuben, Gad, and East Manasseh are treated as a larger entity. These two and a half tribes join forces, share a common
muster, partake in the spoils gained by fighting a collective enemy, and experience a common fate (vv. 22,25–26
). The number forty‐four thousand seven hundred sixty (v. 18
) is notable for its specificity, not for its magnitude.
This part of the tribe of Manasseh was located east of the Jordan River, to the north of Gad.
The campaigns of 733–732 BCE by Tiglath‐pilneser III (whose nickname was Pul), were primarily directed against King Rezin of Damascus, but also resulted in the capture of Gilead and Galilee (2 Kings 15.29
). The list of sites in v. 26
is borrowed, however, from 2 Kings 17.6
(parallel 2 Kings 18.11
), which details the destinations of the later Samarian deportees in the Assyrian exile of 722 BCE.
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