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The New Oxford Annotated Bible New Revised Standard Study Bible that provides essential scholarship and guidance for Bible readers.

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Commentary on Hebrews

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1.1–4.13 Word of God spoken through the Son.

1.1–4: The prologue: God has spoken through a Son.

The formal, rhythmic prologue contrasts God's mode of speaking in the past with God's mode of speaking in these last days. The contrast assumes that the one Son of the present is better than the many prophets of long ago. The relationship of the Son to God is elaborated in a hymn, similar to other Christological hymns in the New Testament (Phil 2.6–11; Col 1.15–20 ).

3:

The Son is described as participating in the creation and as one who sustains all things. The reflection of God's glory and the exact imprint of God's very being, language derived from Jewishwisdom speculation about the female figure of Wisdom, who was present at the time of creation (Prov8.22–31; Wis 9.9 ), came to earth to dwell (Sir 24.8; Bar 3.37 ), and returned to her place in the heavens(1 Enoch 42.1–2 ). In Wis 7.26 wisdom is described as “a reflection … of God.” See also Jn 1.1–3 . When the Son accomplished the priestly work of purification ( 9.14,26–28 ), he sat down at God's righthand (Ps 110.1 ).

4:

The name may be “Son” or possibly “Lord” (Phil 2.9–11 ).

1.5–2.18: The superiority of the Son to the angels.

Angels, thought to be mediators of God's word inthe law of Israel and imagined to be in attendance at the enthronement of the Son, are inferior to the Sonbecause their role is to serve (v. 14 ). Seven quotations from Jewish scripture are cited as speaking aboutor to Jesus.

5:

Ps 2.7; 2 Sam 7.14 .

6:

Deut 32.43 .

7:

Ps 104.4 .

8:

Ps 45.6–7 .

10–12:

Ps 102.25–27 .

13:

Ps 110.1 . The author alludes to Ps 110.1 in 8.1; 10.12; 12.2. Ps 110.1 is interpreted messianicallyelsewhere in the New Testament (Acts 2.24; 1 Cor 15.25 ).

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