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The New Oxford Annotated Bible New Revised Standard Study Bible that provides essential scholarship and guidance for Bible readers.

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Commentary on Hosea

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Commentary spanning earlier chapters

1.2–3.5 : Hosea's family life as a symbolic vehicle for divine communication.

The prophetic acts of Hosea, detailed in two sections ( 1.2–2.1; 3.1–5 ), exemplify God's relationship with Israel in allegorical fashion. Between the narrative sections, a prophetic speech ( 2.2–23 ) indicts Israel for unfaithfulness and offers hope for restoration after a period of punishment.

3.1–5 : The restoration of Hosea's marriage.

In a like manner, the LORD's relationship to Israel will be restored. This section is in first person while 1.2–2.1 was in third. Gomer is not mentioned here by name.

1 :

Raisin cakes were associated with illicit worship (Isa 16.7; Jer 7.18; 44.19 ).

2 :

Shekel, ca. 11.5 g (.4 oz); homer, about 230 l ( 6.5 bu). From whom Hosea bought her is not indicated.

3–4 :

A transitional period is announced during which, on one level, the marital partners forgo relations, and on another, the covenant partners lack their customary mediators (king, prince) and religious mediations. Pillar, see 10.2; Gen 31.45 . Ephod, Ex 28.6–14; 39.2–7; Judg 8.24–28; 1 Sam 2.18 . Teraphim, Gen 31.19 ; probably ancestor statues.

5 :

David their king, the sole reference in Hosea to a specifically Judahite institution such as the Davidic dynasty, Jerusalem, or Zion; probably a later addition.

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