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The New Oxford Annotated Bible New Revised Standard Study Bible that provides essential scholarship and guidance for Bible readers.

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Commentary on Leviticus

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19.1–37 : Various laws.

Many of these laws display ethical concerns.

2 :

The people become holy by keeping God's commandments ( 11.44–45; 20.7–8,24–26; Num 15.40–41 ). Cf. Ex 19.6; Deut 14.2,21; 26.19; 28.6 . The “Holiness School” and “Holiness Collection” (see Introduction) derive their names from this verse.

3–4 :

Cf. the Decalogue, Ex 20.12,8–11,2–6 . Some have suggested that the Decalogue is elsewhere reflected in this chapter.

5–8 :

Cf. 7.15–18 . In contrast to the earlier Priestly Torah treatment of sacrifices at the beginning of Leviticus, the focus here, in the Holiness Collection, is on the lay Israelite.

9–10 :

Cf. 23.22; 25.2–7; Ruth 2.1–10 .

11–13 :

Cf. the Decalogue, Ex 20.15,7, 16 .

14 :

Cf. Deut 27.18 .

17–18 :

For attitudes and actions toward aliens, as opposed to one's kin or people as discussed here, see vv. 33–34. Cf. 25.39–46 .

18b :

This verse, along with Deut 6.5 , is quoted in Mt 22.37–40 (cf. Mk 12.28–33; Lk 10.27; Rom 13.9; Gal 5.14 ).

19 :

One reason mixtures are prohibited is that such prohibitions are reminders that the people, keeping themselves distinct, are holy (cf. Deut 22.9–11 ). See Num 15.37–41n.

20–22 :

If the woman here were free and betrothed, the couple would have been put to death ( 20.10; cf. Deut 22.23–27 ).

23–25 :

Forbidden, perhaps a remnant of fertility propitiation. The fruit of the fourth year is given to God, a type of first‐fruits offering. After God receives his share, the people can use the fruit ( 23.14 ). Cf. Num 18.32n.

26 :

Blood, 3.17n. Augury or witchcraft, forms of divination (cf. v. 31; Gen 44.5,15; Isa 2.6; Ezek 21.26–28; see Num 22.3 ).

27–28 :

Cf. 21.5n.

29 :

A father might force his daughter to prostitution for economic reasons. Cf. 21.9 .

32 :

Cf. v. 3; Isa 3.5 .

33–34 :

Cf. vv. 17–18 .

35–36 :

Deut 25.13–16; Am 8.5; Mic 6.10–11 . An ephah was a dry measure equivalent to ca. 23 l (21 qt); a hin was a liquid measure equivalent to ca. 3.8 l (1 gal).

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