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The New Oxford Annotated Bible New Revised Standard Study Bible that provides essential scholarship and guidance for Bible readers.

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Commentary on Luke

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Commentary spanning earlier chapters

2.21–38 : Jesus' circumcision and presentation.

22–23 :

Ex 13.2,12,15; Lev 5.11; 12.8 . The phrase their purification is ambiguous and likely refers to the parents, though there was no rite of purification for the father (or the newborn). Luke's interest in this ritual is to recognize the occasion of the parents' taking Jesus to the Temple.

25–38 :

Simeon and Anna, not otherwise known, acclaim Jesus as savior and redeemer.

29–32:

The fourth hymn, whose opening words in Latin are “Nunc dimittis.”

30–31:

See 3.6.

32 :

See Isa 49.6; 46.13 .

33 :

Luke calls Joseph the father of Jesus (notwithstanding 1.34–35 ) since he was Mary's husband and Jesus' legal father (cf. Mt 13.55; Lk 2.48; 3.23 ).

22.1–23.56 : The Last Supper and Jesus' trials, death, and burial

(Mt 26.1–27.61; Mk 14.1–15.47; Jn 13.1–19.42 ).

23.1–5 : Jesus before Pilate

(Mt 27.1–14; Mk 15.1–5; Jn 18.28–38 ).

1 :

Pilate, see 3.1n.

2 :

Cf. 19.38; 20.25; see Acts 24.5 . The charge is phrased to sound like treason.

4 :

23.14,22,41; Jn 19.4,6; Acts 13.28 . Pilate refused to take religious ideas in a political sense. Here, and later, Pilate sought to free Jesus but then yielded to pressures.

23.6–12 : Jesus before Herod.

Only Luke reports this episode. Herod Antipas was a son of Herod the Great (see 3.1n. ).

8 :

9.9; Acts 4.27–28 .

11 :

Jn 19.2–3 .

23.13–16 [17]: Pilate's declaration of Jesus' innocence.

14 :

Vv. 4,22,41 .

16 :

Jn 19.12–14 .

[ 17 ]:

An addition to Luke's account from Mk 15.6 ; see note there.

23.18–25 : The sentencing of Jesus to death

(Mt 27.15–26; Mk 15.6–15; Jn 18.39–40; 19.16; see Acts 3.13–14 ).

23.26–31 : On the way to the cross

(Mt 27.31b–32; Mk 15.20b–21; Jn 19.17a ).

26 :

Cyrene, in Libya. The cross, i.e., the horizontal cross‐beam.

28–32 :

21.23–24; 19.41–44 .

30 :

Incorporates wording parallel to Hos 10.8 .

31 :

Cf. Prov 11.31 . This proverb may mean either that if the innocent Jesus meets such a fate, then a worse fate awaits the guilty Jerusalem, or that if such takes place with Jesus present and active, what will happen when he is no longer present? Cf. 1 Pet 4.17–18 .

23.32 : Two criminals with Jesus.

23.33–38 : The scene of the crucifixion

(Mt 27.33–43; Mk 15.22–32a; Jn 19.17b–27 ).

33 :

The Skull, its Aramaic name, Golgotha, is found in the other Gospels.

34 :

See note c; cf. Acts 7.60 . The final phrase alludes to Ps 22.18 .

36 :

Ps 69.21 .

23.39–43 : The exchange between Jesus and the two criminals

(Mt 27.44; Mk 15.32b ).

41 :

Vv. 4,14,22 .

42 :

The robber's appeal may be based on the charge against Jesus (vv.2,3,38 ); he thinks in terms of 21.27–28 . Jesus promises him more than he asked, intimating that God's kingly power is a present reality, not merely future.

43 :

Paradise, originally a term for the garden of Eden (Gen 2.8–10 ), was a contemporary term for the lodging place of the righteous dead prior to the resurrection; cf. 16.22 .

23.44–48 : The death of Jesus

(Mt 27.45–54; Mk 15.33–39; Jn 19.28–30 ).

45 :

Ex 26.31–35 . The sun's light failed, the translation is uncertain; see Am 8.9; Joel 2.31 .

46 :

Jesus' words quote Ps 31.6 .

47 :

In the context of Luke's Gospel, the centurion (see 7.2n. ) declares Jesus to be “righteous” rather than merely innocent.

48 :

The cause of this popular agitation is not clear (Zech 12.10 ), though compare 18.13–14 for a possible meaning of the crowd's reaction.

23.49 : Jesus' acquaintances at the crucifixion

(Mt 27.55–56; Mk 15.40–41; Jn 19.25–27 ). See 23.55; cf. 8.1–3; 24.10; Ps 38.11 .

23.50–54 : The burial of Jesus

(Mt 27.57–60; Mk 15.42–46; Jn 19.38–42 ).

50 :

The council, 22.66n.

54 :

The sabbath began at sundown. Luke, perhaps having Gentile readers in mind, indicates the urgency of the burial in Jewish custom.

23.55–56 : Women at the burial

(Mt 27.61; Mk 15.47–16.1 ).

55 :

Cf. 24.10 .

56 :

Ex 12.16; 20.10 . Spices and ointments were applied to the corpse; see Mk 16.1; Jn 19.40 .

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