(Mt 12.1–14; Mk 2.23–3.6
Harvesting violated the sabbath rest (Ex 34.21
1 Sam 21.1–6
(Mt 10.1–4; Mk 3.13–19a
). Other lists of the twelve occur at Mt 10.2–4
; Mk 3.16–19
; Acts 1.13
; while there is variation, Peter is always named first and Judas Iscariot is always named last.
“The twelve” (
8.1; Acts 6.2; etc.) are a recognized and remembered group in early Christianity, and Luke designates the twelve to be apostles in such a way that the two titles are strictly equated. “Apostle” (from the Gk verb “apostellein,” “to send”) occurs in the
New Testament to designate a Christian who was commissioned to preach the gospel, essentially as a missionary.
The “name” Peter is a nickname, meaning “rock.”
Zealots were a distinct faction of revolutionaries in the Jewish war with Rome of
CE, but whether this designation indicates that this Simon was zealous in a political fashion is debatable since it is unlikely that a Zealot party existed during Jesus' life.
Iscariot is a peculiar term that probably means “the man from Kerioth” (see Josh 15.25
); if so, then this Judas was the only Judean among the twelve.
(Mt 4.24–5.2; Mk 3.7–13a
Unclean spirits designates “spirits” that are contrary to God. “Clean” and “unclean” were religious terms, not strictly descriptions of sanitary
conditions, and can be understood as categories of “holiness” or “sanctity.”
). The focus is on economic and social conditions, not spiritual states.
These verses provide a point‐by‐point antithesis to the previous statements of blessing in vv. 20–23
. Again, actual circumstances are the point of Jesus' statements. In Jesus' declarations of blessings and woes, the earthly
status of those addressed will be reversed in the divinely determined future.
(Mt 5.38–48; 7.12
). Jesus demands love and forbids spite or retaliation.
In Luke, Jesus gives an example of this on the cross in
, if that verse is authentic.
For Israelite laws concerning loans, see Ex 22.25; Lev 25.36–37; Deut 23.19–20
Cf. Mt 5.48
; God's own actions and character provide the standard.
(Mt 7.1–5; 12.36–37; 15.14; Mk 4.24–25
The form of this teaching is hyperbole.
(Mt 7.15–20; 12.33–35
). Cf. Jas 3.11–12
). Cf. Jas 1.22–25
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