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The New Oxford Annotated Bible New Revised Standard Study Bible that provides essential scholarship and guidance for Bible readers.

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Commentary on Matthew

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10.1–42 : Matthew's sending and instruction about mission.

The second discourse (vv. 5–41 ) deals with mission and the realities the disciples will encounter in the world.

1–5 :

The twelve, representing the twelve tribes, shows that Jesus’ followers claim to be the remnant of the true Israel (a symbolic group of twelve leaders existed among the Essenes, 1QS 8.1–2 ). For the list of the twelve, cf. Mk 3.16–19; Lk 6.14–16 .

6–15 :

Mk 6.8–11; Lk 9.2–5 .

5–6 :

Only in Matthew does Jesus instruct the twelve to limit their mission to Israel. Matthew's community does concern itself with non‐Israelites ( 28.19 ), but first speaks to Jews (cf. Acts 10.28 ). Among the Gentiles, treats the restriction as geographic, not ethnic.

5 :

The Samaritans lived in Samaria, between Galilee and Judea. Most Jews regarded them with hostility, although the two groups had much in common (e.g., the Torah).

12 :

Greet it, by saying, “Peace be to this house.”

14 :

Dust from your feet, see Lk 10.11 .

15 :

Sodom and Gomorrah, Gen 18.16–19.29 .

17–25 :

Mk 13.9–13; Lk 21.12–17 .

17 :

Councils and synagogues, local judicial forums and public centers. Flog, as punishment for violating the Torah (Deut 25.1–3 ); cf. 20.19; 23.34 .

18 :

Governors, the title used of Pilate ( 27.2 ).

23 :

Before the Son of Man comes, the time before judgment is short and the task is urgent.

24 :

Cf. Jn 13.16; 15.20 .

25 :

A reminder of the earlier charge by the Pharisees ( 9.34 ). Beelzebul, originally a title of the Canaanite deity Baal (see 2 Kings 1.2n. ), in the Gospels a designation of Satan (see 11.24 ).

26–33 :

Lk 12.2–9 .

27 :

A denial of any secret or esoteric teaching.

34–39 :

Lk 12.51–53; 14.26–27 . Jesus’ presence creates division also. Cf. Mic 7.6 .

40–42 :

Mutual support and provision is a hallmark of the communities gathered around Jesus. Whoever welcomes a prophet, the prophet is equivalent to God who sent him (Ex16.8; 1 Sam 8.7 ). Jesus’ disciples are like the prophets ( 5.12; 11.9; 13.17 ). Little ones, new or vulnerable disciples. See 18.6 .

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