Acts 16.1–3; 1 Cor 16.10‐11
I trust … that I will also come soon, an argument against Rome as place of writing (see Rom 15.23–25
Epaphroditus, apostle and coworker of Paul who brought the gift from Philippi (
), now being sent home.
about those who preach the necessity of circumcision, requiring Christians toobserve the laws of Judaism. They were Paul's
bitter opponents elsewhere, especially in Galatia, and are introduced here as a negative example (cf. Gal 5.1‐12
The flesh, emphasis on physical rituals.
Hebrew, a more preferred self‐designation than Jew, whichwas used more often by and for outsiders. Pharisee, member of the group most concerned with interpretation of the Jewish law.
Acts 9.1–2; 1 Cor 15.9; Gal 1.13
. As to righteousness under the law, blameless, Paul did not see himself as guilty or incomplete before his encounter with Christ.
Rubbish, or excrement.
The righteousness from God based on faith, a free gift bestowed by God through the grace of Christ (Rom 1.16–4.25
Actually to know Christ as risen and living is to have power to suffer like him, and to possess the hope of rising and living
The goal andthe prize, allusion to popular sports, the Greek foot races, their finishing post, and the award to the winner( see 2.16; 1 Cor 9.24–27
Many live as enemies of the cross of Christ, presumably professing Christians who cannot accept Paul's cross theology.
Our citizenship, our ultimate political loyalty andreal homeland, contrasting with the status of most of the Philippians as Roman citizens.
Rom 8.23;1 Cor 15.47–57; 2 Cor 5.1–5; Col 3.1–4
1 Thess 2.19–20
. A crown was often awarded to the winnerof a race (see 3.12–14n.).
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