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The New Oxford Annotated Bible New Revised Standard Study Bible that provides essential scholarship and guidance for Bible readers.

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Commentary on Revelation

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Commentary spanning earlier chapters

15.1–16.21 : The seven bowls of the wrath of God.

16.1–21 : The pouring of the bowls

(cf. chs 8–9 , and the plagues inflicted on Egypt, Ex 7–12 ).

2 :

A foul and painful sore, Ex 9.8–12 .

3–4 :

8.8–9; Ex 7.14–24 .

5–6 :

A judgment doxology.

5 :

The angel that has control of the waters, implying a worldview in which different angels preside over different elements of the cosmos (1 Enoch 60.10–22; Rev 7.1–2, winds; Rev 14.18 , fire).

6 :

Divine retribution (Isa 49.26 ). Blood to drink, cf. 17.6 .

7 :

The altar, 6.9–11 .

10 :

8.12; Ex 10.21 . Throne of the beast, 13.2 .

12 :

Euphrates, see 9.14n. Kings from the east, perhaps a reference to the Parthians, who would be led by Nero, restored to life; see 13.3n. ; Sib. Or. 4.120,139 .

13–14 :

Foul spirits like frogs, Ex 8.1–15 .

14 :

Performing signs, 13.13 .

15 :

Like a thief, see 3.3n. Blessed, see 1.3n.

16 :

They, the frog‐like spirits, emissaries of the demonic trio, that is, the dragon, the beast, and the false prophet. Harmagedon, spelled variously in the manuscripts with “gg” and / or “dd”; also “Armagedon.” This is perhaps an allusion to Megiddo, the site of several decisive battles in Israel's history (Judg 5.19; 2 Kings 9.27; 2 Chr 35.22 ); in Hebrew, “har Megiddo” means “the mountain of Megiddo.” Here it is the symbolic assembly point of the forces hostile to God as they prepare for the eschatological battle.

19 :

The great city, Rome. Great Babylon, 14.8 . Wine‐cup, 14.10 .

21 :

Hail, 8.7; Ex 9.13–35; Wis 5.22 .

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