Tukulti‐apil‐Esharra, King of Assyria 745–727 BCE, sometimes known by the hypocoristic Pul or Pulu. Having risen to power after a revolt against Ashur‐nirari V (755–745 BCE), Tiglath‐pileser reversed decades of Assyrian political decline and ousted Urartu as the principal power in Western Asia. He laid the foundations for the most expansive phase of the Neo‐Assyrian empire by a prolonged series of annual campaigns, by reorganizing and geographically extending the Assyrian provincial system, and by massive deportations of troublesome subject populations.

After early campaigns against Arameans in Babylonia and against western Iran (745–744 BCE), Tiglath‐pileser turned his attention to the more crucial northern and western fronts. He defeated Urartu in 743 and 735 BCE and crushed its Syrian allies, particularly Arpad (742–740 BCE). He invaded Syria and Palestine in 738 and 734 BCE, reaching almost to the border of Egypt and receiving the submission of Zabibe, queen of Arabia. Menahem of Israel paid tribute to Tiglath‐pileser, who withdrew from his kingdom (2 Kings 15.19). When Pekah had succeeded to the throne, Tiglath‐pileser captured part of the northern section of Israel (2 Kings 15.29) and later deported some of the population to Assyria (1 Chron. 5.26). On behalf of Ahaz of Judah, who had sent him munificent gifts, Tiglath‐pileser campaigned against Damascus and Israel (2 Kings 16.7–9). After Tiglath‐pileser had captured Damascus, Ahaz met him there; Ahaz was subsequently accused of changing cult paraphernalia because of the Assyrian king (2 Kings 16.10–18).

Tiglath‐pileser campaigned in Babylonia in 731 and 729 BCE and then himself became king of Babylonia in 728. After his death in 727 BCE, he was succeeded by his son, Shalmaneser V.

John A. Brinkman