Among the major educational institutions worldwide that offer doctoral programs in Egyptology are many that have had long-standing programs with some varying emphasis on language, archaeology, and art history. There are also older institutions that are known for one specialization or another within the broader field, and some more recent programs with more or less breadth essentially at the undergraduate and master's level.
Unlike the largest university departments in history or classics, which have sufficient faculty specialists to be assured of adequate coverage of every decade or author, Egyptology departments, programs, institutes, and seminars over the years have benefited greatly from generalists who were familiar with and could teach many if not all phases of one of the oldest and longest-lived languages that can be studied, a history that spans thirty-five hundred years or more, a culture with seemingly unlimited archaeological resources, with exceptional art and artifacts, and with well-documented religious beliefs and practices. Generally one or two, and rarely three or four individuals at a given time have maintained the outstanding centers of Egyptological instruction. Traditionally, almost all university professors have been specialists in their own right, often providing required introductions to the other aspects of Egyptology, but in some cases an institution has become closely identified with the specialty of one scholar and has attracted primarily philologists or archaeologists, or even aspiring Demotists, Coptologists, Nubiologists, and so on.
One of the world's oldest centers for Egyptological study is the Collège de France, where a chair in Egyptian history and archaeology was established for Jean-François Champollion in 1831, within a few years of the acceptance of his decipherment of Egyptian hieroglyphs, but only a year before he died. Champollion had held a chair in history and geography at Grenoble from 1818 and would have achieved most of his success while there. His student in Egyptology, Ippolito Rosellini, accompanied him on his major epigraphic survey of Egypt in 1828–1829 and was certainly Italy's first modern Egyptologist, though the chair he held at Pisa since 1824 was a professorship of Oriental languages.
Champollion's successors at the Collège included Charles Lenormant (1848); Oliver Charles de Rougé (1860); Gaston Maspero (1874); and Alexandre Moret (1923). More recently, there was Etienne Drioton, appointed in 1957 after he had been professor of Egyptian philology and Coptic at the Catholic Institute since 1919; George Posener, who was professor of Egyptian philology and archaeology from 1961 to 1978; Jean Leclant, who has been active in all aspects of Egyptology; and Jean Yoyotte, who has held the chair most recently.
Before Gaston Maspero became professor at the Collège de France, he had been appointed professor of Egyptology at the École des Hautes Études in 1869. E. Grébaut, who had lectured at the École from 1876 to 1878 and had succeeded Maspero as director of the Egyptian Antiquities Service, returned to teach ancient history at the Sorbonne from 1892 to 1915. E. Lefébure, who was appointed lecturer in Egyptology at Lyons in 1880, succeeded Grébaut at the École in 1885. Emile Amelineau, who had excavated at Abydos in 1894–1898, was primarily a Coptologist and became professor of the history of religions at the École. The renowned Alexandre Moret was director at the École from 1899 to 1938. P. Guieysse was associated with the École from 1880 to 1918 and was succeeded as professor of Egyptian philology by Henri Sottas (1918–1927). From 1928 to 1945 Raymond Weill was director of the École in history and Egyptian archaeology. G. Lefebvre was director of studies at the École Pratique des Hautes Études with the chair in Egyptian philology from 1928 to 1948; he was succeeded by J. J. Clére in 1949. M. Malinine, who was professor of Coptic at the Institut Catholique from 1936 to 1948, was directeur d'Études at the École Pratique from 1952 to 1970. P. Montet was professor at Strasbourg from 1928 to 1964.
Currently, Egyptology is taught at many institutions in France. Among the best-known professors are J. C. Goyon, director of the Institut d'Égyptologie at Lyon; Dominique Valbelle, director of the Institut de Papyrologie et d'Égyptologie at Lille; G. Godron and J. C. Grenier, professors at Montpellier; Nicolas Grimal, director of the Centre de Recherches Égyptologiques at the Sorbonne; Pascal Vernus, director at the École Pratique (fourth section, history and philology); and Annie Gasse, professor of Egyptian at the Institut Catholique.
In 1846, Karl Richard Lepsius became professor of Egyptology at Berlin University, the first in a long line of distinguished scholars who made Germany the world's center for Egyptology. Germany's prominence was due in part to its scholars' success in systematizing Egyptian grammar and later producing the first comprehensive dictionary of the language. Lepsius died in 1884, and his student Adolf Erman assumed the professorship, which he held until 1923. In this period scholars came from all over to study in the Berlin school. Erman taught a wide range of subjects, and his student and successor (from 1923 to 1934), Kurt Sethe, was more narrowly philological. The Berlin school included appointments in papyrology (U. Wilcken, 1917–1931), and art (H. Schaffer, from 1907). Hermann Grapow, known for his work on the Wörterbuch and the medical texts, became honorable professor in 1928 and was ordinarius professor from 1937 to 1945. Fritz Hintze, who worked on the Wörterbuch before the war, returned as lecturer in 1947, was made professor in 1951, and was ordinarius professor from 1957 to 1980. He founded an Institute for Egyptology to cover the Sudan, and his successors Steffen Wenig and Erika Endesfelder have continued in that tradition. At the Ägyptologisches Seminar of the Freien Universität Berlin, Gerhard Fecht has been succeeded by Jürgen Osing as ordinarius professor.
Among the other old Egyptology positions in Germany, H. Brugsch was professor at Göttingen in 1867 and founded the great Zeitschrift für Ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde in 1863. J. Duemichen was professor at Strasbourg from 1872 to 1894, and W. Spiegelberg went there in 1898. Spiegelberg went to Heidelberg in 1918, and from there to Munich from 1923 to 1930. K. A. Wiedemann was professor at Bonn from 1891 to 1928. Hans Bonnet was professor of Egyptology at Bonn from 1928 to 1955, and he was followed by E. Edel, who has been succeeded by U. Rössler-Köhler. G. Seyffarth had been professor of archaeology at Leipzig already in 1830, but got off to a bad start with respect to the the Egyptian language by refusing to accept Champollion's decipherment. G. Steindorff was much more successful at Leipzig from 1893 to 1938. The Coptologist Johannes Leipoldt, who was lecturer at Leipzig then Halle in 1906, became professor at Kiel in 1909, at Münster in 1914, and at Leipzig from 1916 to 1954. A. Scharff was professor at Munich from 1932 to 1950. Kurt Sethe, who was at Göttingen from 1900 to 1923, was succeeded by Herman Kees in 1924. Siegfried Schott was professor at Heidelberg in 1952, but in 1956 succeeded Kees at Göttingen, from which he retired in 1965. His successor, W. Westendorf, has now been succeeded by F. Junge. Eberhard Otto, who was professor at Heidelberg from 1955 to 1974, was succeeded by J. Assmann. At Tübingen professor Helmut Brunner was succeeded by Wolfgang Schenkel as ordinarius and institutsdirektor. At Köln P. Derchain was succeeded by H. J. Thissen. At Hamburg W. Helck was succeeded by H. Atenmüller. Elke Blumenthal is ordinarius professor at Leipzig, R. Gundlach is at Mainz, and at Marburg Günther Burkard succeeded professor Ursula Kaplony-Heckel, but has now become ordinarius at Munich. Erhart Graefe is ordinarius and institutsdirektor at Münster, and Erich Winter is ordinarius at Trier. Erich Lüddeckens was succeeded by K. T. Zauzich at Würzburg. While all of the German Egyptological centers are well staffed, some, such as Heidelberg, Tübingen, Göttingen, and Berlin, are indeed exceptional.
In Turin, the Egyptian Museum has a wonderful collection of objects and papyri and this of course has had its effect on the university. Francesco Rossi who became assistant in the Egyptian Museum in 1865, was appointed extraordinarius professor in 1876, and was ordinarius from 1906 to 1909. Giulio Farina, who was director of the museum from 1939 to 1943, was also appointed professor at the university. More recently, Silvio Curto, who was director of the Museum, was professor in the department of archaeological science as well. The ordinarius professorships in Italy now are at Pisa, with professor Edda Bresciani working in Demotic and excavating in the Faiyum, and at Rome (where G. Botti was appointed from 1956 to 1960 after teaching Egyptology at Florence from 1942 to 1956), with professor Alessandro Roccati, successor to Sergio Donadoni, interested in both philology and in archaeology, and at Bologna with professor Sergio Pernigotti in the Institute of Ancient History. The universities at Milan, Naples, and Florence also have some Egyptology, and the Pontifical Biblical Institute in Rome has had a long tradition including A. Mallon from 1913, É. Suys from 1929, and A. Massart from 1948 to 1985.
Egyptology in the United Kingdom.
While the British Isles produced a number of fine Egyptologists who worked more or less independently during much of the nineteenth century—scholars such as Thomas Young, Edward Hincks, John Gardner Wilkinson, and Samuel Birch being exceptionally noteworthy—it was Amelia Edwards, “the first woman Egyptologist,” who was primarily responsible for founding the Egypt Exploration Fund, which sponsored the important archaeological work of Edouard Naville and W.M.F. Petrie. Amelia Edwards also established the first chair of Egyptology in England at University College, London, in 1892. Petrie was the first to hold the Edwards Chair and began University College's long and distinguished history of fieldwork and teaching of Egyptian archaeology. F. L. Griffith began his career as assistant to Petrie at University College from 1892 to 1896, and Petrie's student Margaret Murray became junior lecturer in 1898. She continued teaching there till 1935, two years after Petrie retired and S. R. K. Glanville became Edwards Professor. Petrie and his successors worked at numerous sites throughout Egypt, and later W. B. Emery and G. T. Martin had remarkable success at their important concessions at Saqqara. With the recent appointments of professors F. Hassan and W. Tait there should be a very good balance between archaeology and philology.
F. L. Griffith became lecturer in Egyptology at Manchester University in 1896, then reader at Oxford in 1901, and eventually professor there in 1924. The Brunner Chair in Egyptology at Liverpool University first held by P. Newberry in 1906 was filled by T. E. Peet in 1920. When Griffith became professor emeritus at Oxford in 1933, Peet was appointed professor designate but died suddenly the following year, and Battiscomb Gunn began his sixteen-year career as professor of Egyptology at Oxford. In Gunn's time Oxford thrived with Sir Alan Gardiner's enormous contributions to scholarship and his considerable involvement in its Egyptology program. With J. Černý's appointment as professor, philology was further enhanced and Late Egyptian Hieratic specifically became a central focus. Emphases have changed with the more recent appointments of John Barnes and currently John Baines, with Mark Smith as reader, but the program continues to be highly productive.
Egyptian language as well as the social sciences aspects of Egyptology continue to be taught to large numbers of students at Liverpool. With H. W. Fairman, K. Kitchen, and A. F. Shore as professors the University became known for Late period studies, Ptolemaic hieroglyphs, Ramessid texts, and Coptic. Again, emphases change, but the program continues to be well balanced with the appointments of C. Eyre and M. Collier.
S. R. K. Glanville left London to become Herbert Thompson Professor of Egyptology at Cambridge University (1946–1956). Because of W. E. Crum's enormous contributions to Coptic studies, England had considerable influence in this field as well, and M. Plumley's subsequent appointment as professor at Cambridge was a significant recognition of the importance of the field. Following Plumley's retirement, however, his two successors there, Barry Kemp and John Ray, as readers, are doing outstanding work in both archaeology and philology, with emphasis on Demotic.
Durham University's School of Oriental Studies also has had an Egyptological presence, with J. R. Harris as professor and Dr. K. Kuhn as reader in Coptic.
Egyptology Elsewhere in Europe.
At the University of Vienna, the philologist Simon Reinisch, who was professor from 1868 to 1903, was clearly interested in Egyptology, but Jakob Krall, who worked with Demotic and Coptic, was the first Egyptology appointment as extraordinarius professor in 1890, ordinarius in 1897, and as professor in 1899. After Krall's death in 1905, Hermann Junker, who had worked in the field for many years, became assistant professor in 1909 and professor in 1912. He founded Vienna's Institute of Egyptology and African Studies in 1923, served as director of the German Archaeological Institute in Cairo, and was professor of Egyptology at Cairo University from 1933 to 1939. Gertrude Thausing succeeded him as professor, and she in turn was followed by Manfred Bietak, who has moved toward archaeology and has made spectacular finds at Tell edDabʿa.
In the Netherlands, Egyptology developed out of two sources: the Museum of Antiquities in Leiden and various faculties of theology. Willem Pleyte had worked at the Museum in Leiden since 1869, but it was Pieter Boeser, his successor as keeper, who was the first to occupy a university position in Egyptology as university lecturer (1910–1925). Boeser was succeeded by H. P. Block and then by A. De Buck (1929–1949), who later became the first ordinarius professor (1949–1969). He was succeeded by A. Klasens as extraordinarius professor (1961–1978), then by J. J. Janssen, again as ordinarius (1980–1985). Since 1986 the chair has been held by Joris Borghouts, who, with several assistants, maintains a very active teaching program, with special interests in philology and Deir el-Medina studies. W. Brede Kristensen occupied a chair in ancient religions at Leiden from 1901 to 1937, and from 1969 to 1998 Leiden also had a chair in Greco-Egyptian law occupied by P. W. Pestman. Since 1985, H. D. Schneider has been extraordinarius professor in Museum Archaeology of Egyptian Objects.
At Amsterdam, extraordinary chairs of Egyptology were occupied by J. M. A. Janssen (1962–1963) and by J. Zandee (1963–1979). Zandee's principal position was with Utrecht University in the faculty of theology. Others active in Egyptology with positions in ancient religions were C. J. Bleeker (1946–1969) and then M. Heerma van Voss (1969–1979) at Amsterdam; G. Leeuw, H. Te Velde, and now J. van Dijk in Groningen; and D. van der Plas since 1989 at Nijmegen.
In Belgium, Jean Capart had appointments as conservator at the Musees Royaux du Cinquantenaire since 1900. Guiding his queen on a tour of Egypt in 1923 resulted in her establishing the Fondation Égyptologique Reine Élisabeth, with Capart as first director. He became chief curator and director of the Museum as well as professor at Liege. M. Werbrouk, A. Mekhitarian, and more recently H. de Meulenaere succeeded Capart as directors of the fondation, which also publishes the Chronique d'Égypte.
The Coptologist L. Lefort became professor and director of the Oriental Institute of the University of Louvain early in the twentieth century. His student Jozef Vergote taught Coptic and Ancient Egyptian at Louvain from 1938 and was professor from 1943 to 1978, when he was succeeded by Jan Quaegebeur, a very productive young scholar who died unexpectedly in 1995; Quaegebeur has been replaced by Harco Willems. C. Vandersleyen held the chair at Louvain-la-Nueve and still directs the Center for Egyptian Archaeology there. H. de Meulenaere had the chair at Ghent, which once belonged to Louis Speleers, and he is now the director of the Fondation; and M. Malaise, successor to B. van de Walle (1929–1972), is professor at Liege.
In Switzerland, the University of Basel created a chair for professor Ursula Schweitzer in 1950, and her successor, Erik Hornung, has succeeded in turning the Ägyptologisches Seminar der Universität into one of the foremost centers for Egyptological teaching. There are also Egyptology programs at Geneva University under Ordinarius Professor M. Valloggia and at Zurich under Professor P. Kaplony.
At the University of Copenhagen, the linguist Valdemar Schmidt was appointed professor (1882–1921) and was succeeded by his student H. O. Lange, who had been chief librarian since 1901. Lange founded Copenhagen's Institute of Egyptology in 1924, and after his death in 1943 was succeeded by his student C. Sander-Hansen, who was chair from 1946 to 1963. Wolja Ericksen, who had taught at Mainz (1948–1953), became lecturer in Coptic at Copenhagen in 1953 and was professor of Egyptology from 1963 to 1966. H. J. Polotsky was there in 1967–1968, and J. R. Harris, J. Osing, and P. Frandsen have maintained the teaching program more recently.
In Sweden, Uppsala has long had an Institution for Egyptologi at the Gustavianum, and for many years professor Torgny Säve-Söderbergh held the chair, which passed at his retirement to Rostislav Holthoer assisted by Gertie Englund.
In Norway, J. Lieblein was appointed professor of Egyptology at the University of Christiana (Oslo) in 1867, but this position has not survived.
At Prague in the Czech Republic, Frantisek Lexa, who had studied with Adolf Erman and W. Spiegelberg, became extraordinarius professor at Charles University in 1922 and professor in 1927. Jaroslav Černý was lecturer there from 1929 to 1946, before going to University College, London. Lexa then became director of the Czechoslovak Institute of Egyptology in 1958. Zbynék Žába, who had become reader in 1954 and negotiated the institute, became professor of Egyptology in 1959 and director of the institute in 1960 when Lexa died. After Žába's death in 1971, E. Strouhal became director and the institute continues now under the direction of professor Miroslav Verner.
In Poland, the emphasis had been largely on archaeology, particularly because of the efforts of the very influential Kazimierz Michalowski who was named professor at Warsaw in 1933, and was ordinarius from 1939 to 1973. Tadeusz Andrzejewski held the Egyptian philology position at Warsaw between 1951 and 1961, and was succeeded by Elzbieta Dabrowska-Smektala. Professor Jadwiga Lipinska worked for the Egyptian department of Warsaw's Archaeological Institute for many years, and Karol Mysliewiec is now professor, with Andrzej Niwinski and Zbigniew Szafranski as assistant professors.
Budapest continues to have Egyptology well represented with the courses taught by professors L. Kakosy and U. Luft, who have done fieldwork in Egypt.
At Saint Petersburg in the former Soviet Union professors Oleg Berlev and Alla Elanskaya have positions at the Institute of Oriental Studies of the Academy of Sciences.
In Spain, Professor Padro i Parcerisa is with the Centre d'Egiptologia in the Department of Prehistory at the University of Barcelona.
Egyptology in North America.
While Charles E. Wilbour, who studied at Paris and Berlin, is often called “America's first Egyptologist,” and with the help of two of his children has made considerable contributions to Egyptology in the United States, he himself neither taught nor published. James H. Breasted, a philologist and historian who received his doctorate from Berlin, became the first assistant (1895), then instructor in Egyptology and Semitics at the University of Chicago (1896), and was promoted to professor there in 1905. George Reisner also studied at Berlin, became instructor in Semitics at Harvard University in 1896, excavated in Egypt for Phoebe A. Hearst and the University of California, became assistant professor of Semitic archaeology at Harvard in 1905, and became professor of Egyptology there in 1914, but that position did not survive his retirement in 1942.
At the University of Chicago, Breasted trained many students, raised considerable funds, mainly from John D. Rockefeller, and built up an outstanding research center in the Oriental Institute, as well as two expedition houses in Egypt, one of which survives at Luxor, with ideal facilities for careful epigraphic work. His students succeeded him, John A. Wilson for Old and Middle Egyptian language and history, William F. Edgerton for later stages of Egyptian. They were later joined by Keith Seele, another Berlin and Chicago–trained philologist who later became quite involved with the salvage effort in Nubia. When the three of them retired in the mid 1960s, George Hughes, after many years with the Epigraphic Survey in Egypt, returned to Chicago to teach Demotic (replacing Edgerton), and the next generation brought E. F. Wente back from Chicago House in Luxor, Klaus Baer back from the University of California, Berkeley, and, following Hughes' retirement, Janet Johnson to continue the Demotic tradition. More recently, Lanny Bell and Peter Dorman also returned from Chicago House to teach language and history courses, and Robert Ritner returned to Chicago from Yale as associate professor. To teach Egyptian archaeology, Chicago had Henri Frankfort, Helene Kantor, and more recently Mark Lehner.
The University of California, Berkeley, had George Reisner as director of the Hearst Egyptian Expedition from 1899 to 1905, but did not have a real academic appointment in Egyptology until Henry Lutz, who had trained in Semitics at Yale, became assistant professor of Assyriology and Egyptology in 1921. Becoming full professor in 1929, Lutz served until 1954, and was followed by Klaus Baer who came as lecturer in 1959 and became associate professor before returning to Chicago in 1965. William F. Edgerton after his retirement from Chicago filled in for one year, when Leonard H. Lesko came as acting instructor of Egyptology in 1966, along with Akhmed Fakhry as visiting professor of Egyptian Archaeology. Lesko became professor of Egyptology in 1977, had teaching assistants for some language courses, and obtained a second regular position in Egyptian Archaeology in the Department of Near Eastern Studies before he left to accept the Wilbour Chair at Brown University. Cathleen Keller currently has the philology position and Carol Redmount teaches Egyptian archaeology.
Yale University has offered courses in Egyptology since Ludlow Bull, a Yale undergraduate with a doctorate from Chicago, became lecturer in 1925 and professor in 1936. William Kelly Simpson, who was curator at the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston for a number of years, has now been professor of Egyptology at Yale for many years. Simpson has trained a number of Egyptologists, has had assistants (Robert Ritner and now John Darnell) and distinguished visiting professors, and oversees epigraphic and archaeological work.
After developing a fine museum collection and maintaining active fieldwork in Egypt for many years, the University of Pennsylvania brought Battiscomb Gunn to the United States to serve as curator from 1931 to 1934. In 1934 he returned to England to become professor at Oxford. His successors at the museum were two established philologists from Germany: Hermann Ranke, who came in 1938 and was the first to hold a joint teaching position; and Rudolph Anthes, who was appointed in 1950 (through 1962) and produced Penn's first doctorate in Egyptology, Henry Fischer. Then W. K. Simpson, A. Fakhry, and J. Černý had visiting appointments, while David O'Connor became teaching curator in 1964. David Silverman came in 1977 and also became curator. When O'Connor left in 1995 to become L. A. Wallace Professor at New York University's Institute of Fine Arts, Professor Silverman became curator in charge.
In 1948, Theodora Wilbour left Brown University half of her estate to endow a chair professorship and a department of Egyptology in memory of her father, Charles Edwin Wilbour. Richard A. Parker, who was then director of the Epigraphic Survey of the University of Chicago in Luxor, became the first Wilbour Professor. He hired Ricardo Caminos as assistant professor in 1952 and brought distinguished visiting professors to Providence for many years. Their doctoral graduate Caroline Peck was added to the teaching staff, but that position was not continued when Caminos became Wilbour Professor in 1972 following Parker's retirement. Totally involved with his research, Caminos did very little teaching and retired in 1979. Leonard H. Lesko left his professorship at Berkeley to become Wilbour Professor in 1982, now has Leo Depuydt as associate professor, and several adjuncts and visitors (Edward Brovarski, Lanny Bell, and Florence Friedman) to round out the teaching program.
New York University's Institute of Fine Arts had Bernard Bothmer, who was on the curatorial staff at the Brooklyn Museum of Art since 1956, as lecturer from 1960, and appointed him as professor in 1979. He was Lila Acheson Wallace Professor of Egyptian Art there from 1982 until his death in 1993. He was succeeded in 1995 by David O'Connor, who came from the teaching/curatorial position at the University of Pennsylvania's museum.
The University of California at Los Angeles' commitment to Egyptology began with the appointment of John B. Callender in 1968; he became professor of Egyptian and Coptic in 1986. Following Callender's premature death, Antonio Loprieno was appointed to the philology position, and an archaeology position has also been added.
There has been some interest in Egyptology at Johns Hopkins University dating to the professorship of William F. Albright from 1929 to 1958. More recently, a chair endowed by Alexander Badawy was filled by Betsy Bryan, and Richard Jasnow also has a regular position there.
Nathaniel Reich, who had been lecturer at Prague, became professor of Egyptology at Dropsie College in Philadephia in 1925; he died in 1943. The position no longer exists.
Louis V. Žabkar, who trained in Egyptology at Chicago, taught history at Loyola University in Chicago before becoming professor of Egyptology at Brandeis University in Waltham, Massachusetts. He indeed produced a number of successful doctoral students there, but the position has not been continued.
Other recently established centers of Egyptological training in the United States with at least two faculty members include Memphis State University, Pennsylvania State University, the University of Michigan, and Emory University in Atlanta.
The Department of Near Eastern Studies of the University of Toronto had S. A. B. Mercer appointed as professor of Semitic Languages and Egyptology from 1924 to 1946. Ronald Williams began teaching Egyptian in 1946 and served as professor from 1957 to 1982. Donald Redford joined him as a historian with considerable interest in archaeology, and he inaugurated an era of multiple expeditions. With Redford's move to Pennsylvania State University, Ronald Leprohon is now professor with several assistants.
In Cairo, Ahmed Kamal, who had studied with Brugsch and worked for the Antiquities Service and the Egyptian Museum for thirty years, was nominated to be director of the School of Egyptology that he helped establish, but on Kamal's death in 1923, Vladimir Golenischeff was appointed professor of Egyptology; he served from 1924 to 1929. Girgis Mattha, who had studied at Paris and Oxford, became lecturer at Cairo University in 1937 (P. Jouguet was professor from 1937 to 1949), and later Mattha became director of the Institute of Archaeology, a post he held from 1950 to 1965. Golenischeff's students included the distinguished Egyptian Egyptologists Ahmed Fakhry, who became professor of Egyptian history at the University in 1952 till 1965; Labib Habachi of the Antiquities Services; and the archaeologist Abdel-Moneim Abu Bakr, who went on to become professor at the University of Alexandria and then Cairo in 1954. Vikentiev and Hermann Junker also taught at the Cairo Institute, and their student Abel el-Mohsen Bakir became professor of Egyptian Philology in Cairo (1954–1968). More recently, the Cairo Institute's faculty of archaeology has included professors Sayed Tawfik, Gaballa Ali Gaballa, Ali Radwan, Mohamed Abd el-Halim Nur-el-Din, Mohamed Moursi, Faiza Haikal, and Tohfa Handoussa.
In Jerusalem, Hebrew University appointed Hans Jacob Polotsky as instructor in Egyptology in 1934; he served as professor of Egyptology and Semitic linguistics from 1951 to 1972. His student and successor, Professor Sarah Israelit-Groll recently retired, and Professor Irene Shirun-Grumach and the senior lecturer Orly Goldwasser teach Egyptology in the Department of Ancient Near Eastern Studies. A. Shisha-Halevy is there in linguistics and Abraham Malamat in history. Egyptology also continues to be studied at Tel Aviv University.
There is a Programa de Estudios de Egiptologia in Buenos Aires under the direction of Perla Fuscaldo. This program traces its origins to Abraham Rosenvasser, a self-taught Egyptologist who held many different positions in ancient history departments in Argentina between 1939 and his death in 1983.
In Australia, professor Naguib Kanawati and senior lecturer Boyo Ockinga have developed a fine teaching and research center for Egyptology in the School of History at Macquarie University in New South Wales.
The Department of Classics and Ancient History at the University of Auckland, New Zealand, has senior lecturer Anthony Spalinger offering both undergraduate and graduate courses in Egyptian language and history.
In Japan, at Waseda University's Egyptian Culture Center, professors of Egyptian architecture and archaeology, under the direction of Professor Yasutada Watanabe, maintain a very active program of fieldwork.
In China, the Institute for the History of Ancient Civilizations of North-East Normal University in Changchun has brought a number of visiting scholars to teach Egyptology.
Leonard H. Lesko