Mesolithic Period (8500–5500 BCE)

PREDYNASTIC PERIOD

Neolithic Period (5500–3100 BCE)



Badarian 5500–4000 BCE
Amratian (Naqada I) 4000–3500 BCE
Gerzean (Naqada II) 3500–3150 BCE

Dynasty “O”



[“Uj” occupant] c.3150 BCE
Iry-Hor (?)
Ka c.3100–3050
“Scorpion”

EARLY DYNASTIC PERIOD

First Dynasty (Thinite)



Narmer; Aha; Djer; Wadji; c.3050–2850
 Den; Enedjib; Semsem; Ka‘a

Second Dynasty (Thinite)



Hotepsekhemwy c.2850–2820
Ranebi c.2820–2790
Ninuter c.2790–2754
Wadjnas c.2754–2734
Senedy
Peribsen c.2734–2714
Khasekhemwy c.2714–2687

OLD KINGDOM

Third Dynasty



Djoser c.2687–2668
Nebka c.2688–2682
Sekhemkhet ?
Khaba ?
Neferkare c.2679–2673
Huny (?) c.2673–2649

Fourth Dynasty



Sneferu c.2649–2609
Khufu c.2609–2584
Djedefre c.2584–2576
Khafre c.2576–2551
Menkaure c.2551–2523
Shepseskaf c.2523–2519
[2 unknown kings] c.2519–2513

Fifth Dynasty



Userkaf c.2513–2506
Sahure c.2506–2492
Neferirkare Kakai c.2492–2482
Shepseskare c.2482–2475
Raneferef c.2475–2474
Newoserre Any c.2474–2444
Menkauhor c.2444–2436
Djedkare Izezi c.2436–2404
Unas c.2404–2374

Sixth Dynasty



Teti c.2374–2354
Userkare ?
Pepy I c.2354–2310
Merenre Antyemsaf c.2310–2300
Neferkare Pepy II c.2300–2206
[Antyemsaf] II c.2206
Nitokerty (Nitocris) c.2205–2200
Neferka the child [c.2200–2199]
Nefer c.2199–2197
Aba c.2197–2193
[…] c.2193–2191
[…] c.2191

FIRST INTERMEDIATE PERIOD

Seventh Dynasty



Numerous ephemeral kings

Eighth Dynasty



“18 kings” c.2190–2165
Merenre Antyemsaf II (sic) Ny-kare
Neferkare Terer
Neterkare Neferkahor
Menkare Neferkare
Neferkare  Pepysonby
Neferkare Neby Sneferka-ʿanu
Djedkare Shemay Kakaure
Neferkare Khenedy Neferkaure
Merenhor Neferkauhor
Sneferka Neferirkare II

Ninth and Tenth Dynasties (Herakleopolitan)



“18 kings” c.2165–2040
Akhtoy I Shed[…]
Hu-[…]
Neferkare [6 kings]
Akhtoy II Akhtoy III
Seneni (?) Merikare
Mer[…]

Early Eleventh Dynasty (Theban)



Antef I 2134–2118
Antef II 2118–2068
Antef III 2068–2061

MIDDLE KINGDOM

Late Eleventh Dynasty (All Egypt)



Nebhepetre Montuhotep I 2061–2011
Seʿankhibtowy Montuhotep II 2011–2000
Nebtowyre Montuhotep III 2000–1998
(Civil Strife 1998–1991)

Twelfth Dynasty



Amenemhet I 1991–1962
Senwosret I 1971–1928
Amenemhet II 1929–1895
Senwosret II 1897–1877
Senwosret III 1878–1843
Amenemhet III 1843–1797
Amenemhet IV 1798–1790
Sobekneferu 1790–1786

Thirteenth and Fourteenth Dynasties



Khutowyre Sobekhotpe I 1786–1763
Sekhemkare Amenemhetsonbef 1783–1780
(13 kings) c.1780–1760
[…]
Sekhemkare Amenemhet
Sehtepibre
Afni
Seonkhibre Ameny-intef-Amenemhat
Smenkare
Sehtepibre Qemau si-Harendotes
Sewadj-kare
Nodjemibre
Sobekhotep I
Rensonbe
Awibre Hor
Sedjefakare Qay-Amenemhat
Sobekhotpe II 1750–1756
Khendjer 1756–1751
(3 kings) […] 1751–1749
Sekhemkare Sobekhotpe III 1749–1747
Khasekhemre Neferhotpe I 1747–1736
Sihathor 1735
Khaneferre Sobekhotpe IV 1734–1725
Khahetepre Sobekhotpe V 1725–1721
Wahibre Ya‘ib 1721–1712
Merneferre Aya 1712–1700
Merhotepre An 1700–1698
Se‘ankhenre Sewadjtu 1698–1695
Mersekhemre Neferhotpe 1695–1692
Sewadjkare Hori 1691
Merkare Sobekhotpe VI 1690–1688
(14 kings) 1688–c.1665
Merkheperre Djedkherure
[3 or 4 kings] Seonkhibre
Nehesy Nefertumre
Khatire Sekhem[…]re
Nebawre Ka[…]re Kem
Sehebre Neferibre
Merdjefare […]
Sewadjkare Kha[…]re
Nebjefare Akare
Webenre Semen[…]re
[3 kings] Djed[…]re
Awibre [6 kings]
Heribre Seneferre
Nebseure Men[…]re
[…] Djed[…]
Sekheperenre

SECOND INTERMEDIATE PERIOD

Fifteenth Dynasty (Hyksos)



Maa-ibre Sheshy c.1664–1662
Mer-userre Ya‘akob-har c.1662–1653
Seuserenre Khayan c.1653–1614
[…] Yansas-adoen c.1614–1605
Aa-woserre Apophis c.1605–1565
[…] Hamudi c.1565–1555

Early Sixteenth Dynasty (Hyksos)



22 kings+ 65+ years c.1665–1600

Late Seventeenth Dynasty (Theban)



Sekenenre Taʿo c.1600–1571
Senakhtenre Taʿo
Kamose c.1571–1569

NEW KINGDOM

Eighteenth Dynasty



Ahmose c.1569–1545
Amenhotpe I c.1545–1525
Thutmose I c.1525–1516
Thutmose II c.1516–1504
Thutmose III 1504–1452
Hatshepsut 1502–1482
Amenhotpe II 1454–1419
Thutmose IV 1419–1410
Amenhotpe III 1410–1372
Amenhotpe IV (Akhenaten) 1372–1355
Smenkhkare 1355
Tutankhamun 1355–1346
Ay 1346–1343
Horemheb 1343–1315

Nineteenth Dynasty



Ramesses I 1315–1314
Sety I 1314–1304
Ramesses II 1304–1237
Merenptah 1237–1226
Amenmesse 1226–1221 (?)
Sety II 1221–1215
Merenptah-Siptah 1215–1209
Twosret 1209–1201

Twentieth Dynasty



Sethnakhte 1200–1198
Ramesses III 1198–1166
Ramesses IV 1166–1160
Ramesses V 1160–1156
Ramesses VI 1156–1149
Ramesses VII 1149–1141
Ramesses VIII c.1141–1139
Ramesses IX 1139–1120
Ramesses X 1120–1111
Ramesses XI c.1111–1081

THIRD INTERMEDIATE PERIOD

Twenty-first Dynasty (Tanite)



Smendes 1081–1055
Psusennes I 1055–1004
Amenemisu 1004–1000
Amenemhet 1000–900
Osochor 990–984
Siamun 984–965
Psusennes II 965–931

Twenty-second Dynasty (Bubastite/Libyan)



Sheshonq 931–910
Osorkon I 910–896
Takelot I 896–873
Osorkon II 873–844
Takelot II 844–819
Sheshonq III 819–767
Pemay 767–763
Sheshonq IV 763–725

Twenty-third Dynasty (Tanite/Libyan)



Petubastis 813–c.773
Osorkon III 873–745
Takelot III [Amunrud] c.750–c.720
Osorkon IV c.720–711

LATE PERIOD

Twenty-fourth Dynasty



Tefnakhte 724–717
Bakenrenef 717–711

Twenty-fifth Dynasty (Kushite)



Alara (early 8th cent. BCE)
Kashta c.755–c.735
Piya c.735–712
Shabaqa 712–698
Shabtaqa c.705–690
Taharqa 690–664
Tanutamun 664–656

Twenty-sixth Dynasty (Saite)



Psamtik I 664–610
Necho II 610–595
Psamtik II 595–589
Apries 589–570
Amasis 569–526
Psamtik III 526–525

Twenty-seventh Dynasty



First Persian Occupation
Cambyses 525–522
Darius I 521–486
Xerxes I 486–466
Artaxerxes I 465–424
Darius II 424–405

Twenty-eighth Dynasty



Amyrtaeos 405 (Dec.)–399

Twenty-ninth Dynasty



Nepherites I 399–393
Psammuthis 392
Hakoris 392–380
Nepherites II 380

Thirtieth Dynasty



Nektanebo I 380–363
Tachos 362–361
Nektanebo II 360–343

Thirty-first Dynasty



Second Persian Occupation
Artaxerxes III 343–338
Arses 338–336
Darius III 335–332
Khababash 333
(last known native Egyptian ruler)

GRECO-ROMAN PERIOD

Macedonian Dynasty



Alexander the Great 332–323
Philip Arrhidaeus 323–316
Alexander IV 316–305

Ptolemaic Era



Ptolemy I Soter I 305–282
Ptolemy II Philadelphus 282–246
Ptolemy III Euergetes 246–222
Ptolemy IV Philopator 222–205
Ptolemy V Epiphanes 204–180
Ptolemy VI Philometor 180–145
Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator 145–144
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II 145–116
Ptolemy IX Soter II 116–107
Ptolemy X Alexander I 107–88
Ptolemy IX Soter II (restored) 88–81
Ptolemy XI Alexander II 80
Ptolemy XII Auletes 80–58
Berenice IV 58–55
Ptolemy XII Auletes (restored) 55–51
Cleopatra VII & Ptolemy XIII 51–47
Cleopatra VII & Ptolemy XIV 47–44
Cleopatra VII & Ptolemy XV Caesarion 44–31

Roman Era



Augustus (formerly Octavian) 30 BCE–41 CE
Tiberius I 14–37
Caligula 37–41
Claudius I 41–54
Nero 54–68
Galba (& Otho, Vitellius) 68–69
Vespasian 69–79
Titus 79–81
Domitian 81–96
Nerva 96–98
Trajan 98–117
Hadrian 117–138
Antoninus Pius 138–161
Marcus Aurelius (& Lucius Verus) 161–180
Commodus 180–192
Pertinax & Julianus 193
Septimus Severus 193–211
Caracalla (& Geta) 211–217
Macrinius 217–218
Elgabalus 218–222
Severus Alexander 222–235
Maximinus (& Gordian I, II) 235–238
Balbinus & Pupiemus 238
Gordian III 238–244
Philip 244–249
Decius 249–251
Trebonianus, Aemilianus 251–253
Valerian 253–260
Gallienus 253–268
Claudius II Gothicus 268–270
Aurelian 270–275
Tacitus (& Florianus) 275–276
Probus 276–282
Carus 282–283
Carinus (& Numerianus) 283–285
Diocletian (& Maximian) 284–305
Constantius 292–306
Galerius 293–311
Licinius 311–323
Constantine I 306–337

BYZANTINE ERA



Constantius II 337–361
Julianus 361–363
Jovianus 363–364
Valens 364–378
Theodosius I 378–395
Arcadius 395–408
Theodosius II 408–450
Marcianus 450–457
Leo I 457–474
Leo II 474
Zeno 474–491
Anastasius 491–518
Justin I 518–527
Justinian I 527–565
Justin II 565–578
Tiberius II 578–582
Maurice 582–602
Phocas 602–610
Heraclius I 610–641
Constantinus II 641

ARAB CONQUEST (642 CE)