(1898–1987), French


best-known as the director, for more than fifty years, of the excavations at Byblos in Lebanon. Dunand was born and died in Haute-Savoie. His interest in Levantine archaeology began when he participated in the 1919–1920 French military campaign in Syria. After graduating from the École du Louvre, he continued his education at the École Biblique et Archéologique Française in Jerusalem (1924–1925). While working at the 1924 Palmyra and Byblos excavations, he initiated excavations at Eshmun, near Sidon. In 1925, he undertook epigraphic expeditions to Safa, the Hauran, and on Jebel al-Druze and reorganized the Museum of Suweida. In the following year he excavated in Syria in the Ledja and the Jezireh and farther east, at Arslan Tash, Til Barsip, and Luristan.

From 1940 to 1945, Dunand served as director of the French high commission for Syria-Lebanon and excavated Hellenistic Umm el-῾Amad (1943–1945). In 1948, with the end of the French Mandate, the Lebanese Department of Antiquities authorized him to continue the Byblos excavations. With his wife Mireille, he developed a ceramic typology, plus field techniques using the 10-m × 10-m site grid and the excavation of 20-cm levels. Byblos architecture and forty-five thousand artifacts were analyzed by level, as opposed to natural stratigraphy. This now-outmoded system was Dunand's attempt to objectify excavation. From 1954 to 1974, Dunand excavated the Greco-Persian temple of Amrit (Syria) and Tell Kazel on the Syrian coast. From 1961 to 1976 he continued his work at the Eshmun temple.

The French government awarded Dunand the Legion of Honor and made him an honorary conservator of the national museums. He left Lebanon during the civil strife of the 1970s. His prolific publications include five Byblos volumes, Fouilles de Byblos (1937–1958), Oumm el- ῾Amed (1962), and Le Temple d'Amrith (1985), and his bibliography appears in fasicle I of Mélanges de l'Université Saint-Joseph de Beyrouth (1970).

[See also ῾Amrit; Byblos; Kazel, Tell al-; Suweida; and Til Barsip.]


  • Dunand, Maurice. Fouilles de Byblos. 5 vols. Paris, 1937–1958.
  • Dunand, Maurice. “Rapport préliminaire sur les fouilles de Byblos.” Bulletin du Musée de Beyrouth 9 (1949–1950): 53–74; 12 (1955): 7–23; 13 (1956): 73–86; 16 (1964): 69–85.
  • Dunand, Maurice. Oumm el-'Amed, une ville de l'époque hellénistique aux échelles de Tyr. Paris, 1962.
  • Dunand, Maurice. Byblos: Its History, Ruins, and Legends. 2d ed. Beirut, 1968.
  • Dunand, Maurice. “La Piscine du Trône d'Astarté dans le Temple d'Echmoun à Sidon.” Bulletin du Musée de Beyrouth 24 (1971): 19–25.
  • Dunand, Maurice. “Le Temple d'Echmoun à Sidon: Essai de chronologie.” Bulletin du Musée de Beyrouth 26 (1973): 7–25.
  • Dunand, Maurice. Article in Mélanges de l'Université Saint-Joseph de Beyrouth 48 (1974–1975): 3–8.
  • Dunand, Maurice. Le temple d'Amrith dans la pérée d'Aradus. Bibliothèque Archéologique et Historique, vol. 122. Paris, 1985.
  • Mélanges de l'Université Saint-Joseph de Beyrouth 46.1 (1970): 3–8. Bibliography of Dunand's work to 1970.

Martha Sharp Joukowsky