consulting architect

for many important early excavations in Israel. Born in Odessa (Ukraine) and educated as a structural engineer, Dunayevsky emigrated to Palestine In 1934. He worked first as an engineer, but after participating part-time at Benjamin Mazar's excavations at Beth-She῾arim, Beth-Yeraḣ, and Tell Qasile (1949–1951), he abandoned engineering and joined Yigael Yadin's excavation at Tel Hazor as staff architect (1955). Dunayevsky joined the Department of Archaeology at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and, until his death, served either as the architect or consulting architect for the excavations at ῾Ein-Gedi, Hammath Tiberias, Masada, and Megiddo, among many others.

In addition to surveying and preparing and drawing final plans, Dunayevsky applied himself to architectural and stratigraphic analysis, in which he was gifted and insightful. Through on-site checking of walls, floors, and their interrelationships, he established the true sequence of strata and the architectural history of a site. It was, perhaps, because he was not trained as an archaeologist that he was free of the burden of preconceived theories. Dunayevsky was a master at reading a site's relative chronology, as preserved in its architectural history. His contribution to the Hazor expedition (1954–1956, 1968), was the final and perhaps the best example of his work.

[See also the biographies of Mazar and Yadin. In addition, the sites mentioned are the subject of independent entries.]


  • Netzer, Ehud. “A List of Selected Plans Drawn by I. Dunayevsky.” Eretz- Israel 11 (1973): 13*–24*. (I. Dunayevsky Memorial Volume).
  • Netzer, Ehud, and Aharon Kempinski. “Immanuel (Munya) Dunayevsky, 1906–1968: The Man and His Work.” In The Architecture of Ancient Israel from the Prehistoric to the Persian Periods: In Memory of Immanuel (Munya) Dunayevsky, edited by Aharon Kempinski and Ronny Reich, pp. vii–ix. Jerusalem, 1992.

Ronny Reich