(1868–1958), French

Orientalist and

archaeologist

who organized the Syrian Antiquities Department and, over a period of twenty years, various French expeditions to Syria. Dussaud graduated from the École Centrale des Arts et Manufactures in Paris, with an assured career in engineering. He chose to investigate the Near Eastern world of his father, who had worked on the Suez Canal. Trained in the classics, Dussaud embarked on learning Arabic and Classical Hebrew. He was encouraged in his work by Charles S. Clermont-Ganneau, whom he accompanied on several archaeological missions to Syria and Lebanon. Dussaud was an energetic scholar who published Nabatean, Greek, and Latin inscriptions. Submitting his thesis to the École des Hautes Études In 1899, he thereafter published Introduction à l'histoire des religions (1914) and Les Arabes en Syrie avant l'Islam (1907).

Dussaud theorized about Near Eastern cultural exchanges. Enthusiastic about Arthur Evans's discoveries on Crete, he visited the island and In 1910 produced Les civilisations préhelléniques dans le bassin de la mer Égée (1914). Following World War I, Dussaud returned to Syria, which was then under French mandate. There he presided over the opening of the Byblos excavations and ensured French expeditions to Ras Shamra/Ugarit and Mari.

Dussaud was codirector of the Revue de l'histoire des religions, and In 1920 founded the periodical Syria. In 1923 he was appointed to the Acadèmie des inscriptions, replacing his mentor, Clermont-Ganneau. He continued to research Canaanite cults and their interconnections with the Hebrew Bible in a two-volume work, L'art phénicien du IIe millénaire (1949).

[See also Mari; Ugarit; and the biography of Clermont-Ganneau.]

Bibliography

  • Les Arabes en Syrie avant l'Islam. Paris, 1907.
  • Les civilisations préhelléniques dans le bassin de la mer Égée. Paris, 1914.
  • Introduction à l'histoire des religions. Paris, 1914.
  • Les origines cananéennes du sacrifice israélite. Paris, 1921.
  • Topographie historique de la Syrie antique et médiévale. Paris, 1927.
  • Les découvertes de Ras Shamra (Ugarit) et l'Ancien Testament. Paris, 1937.
  • Les religions des Hittites et les Hourrites. Paris, 1945.
  • L'art phénicien du IIe millénaire. 2 vols. Paris, 1949.
  • La pénéntration des Arabes en Syrie avant l'Islam. Paris, 1955.

Dussaud was a prolific writer, interested in many fields, including philology, epigraphy, numismatics, and archaeology. He published articles on Safaitic, Nabatean, Greek, Arabic, Aramean, Phoenician, and Neo-Punic. His early bibliography, listing almost three hundred articles and volumes, appears in Mélanges Syriens 30 (1939). Other works by Dussaud include the following:

Martha Sharp Joukowsky