[The tables referred to throughout this entry appear as an appendix in volume 5.] Aramaic texts from the twenty-sixth dynasty through the Ptolemaic period were written (or found) in Egypt on papyrus, parchment, wood, ostraca, stone out croppings, sarcophagi, funerary stelae, altars, jars, bowls, coins, statuettes, seals, and bullae. Major centers of discovery were Memphis-Saqqara and Elephantine from the Persian period and Edfu from the Ptolemaic period, but graffiti have turned up all along the Nile from northern Giza to Nubian Tumas. The particulars of discovery and publication of papyri, ostraca, and jar inscriptions are listed chronologically in tabular form according to category of text (tables 1, 14–15). Other texts, including ostraca and jar inscriptions, are arranged typologically and listed alphabetically according to museum or library (tables 2–13).
Papyri and Parchments.
These documents fall into six categories: (1) thirty-six letters on papyrus and fourteen on parchment, plus numerous fragments. Twenty-eight papyri belong to Elephantine (TAD [= Porten and Yardeni, 1986–1993] A3.1–10; 4.1–10; 5.2, 5; 6.1–2) or Syene (Aswan; TAD A2.1–4) and seven elsewhere—el-Hibeh (TAD A3.11), Luxor (TAD A2.5–7), Saqqara (TAD A1.1; 5.1), and an unknown locality (TAD A5.3, 4). A unique letter is from Adon, king of Ekron (c. 604–603 BCE), seeking aid from the pharaoh against the Babylonian onslaught. (2) forty-three contracts from Elephantine Island, mostly intact (495–400); one from el-Hibeh (515 [TAD B1.1]) and fragmentary court protocols from Saqqara (TAD B8.1–12). (3) two or three literary texts—The Words of Aḥiqar (TAD C1.1) and one or two fragmentary reworked Egyptian tales (TAD C1.2). (4) one historical text—a fragmentary version of Darius' Bisitun inscription (TAD C2.1). (5) thirty accounts from Elephantine and Saqqara in the Persian period and Edfu in the Ptolemaic period (TAD C3.1–29). (6) nine lists, likewise from Elephantine and Saqqara (TAD C4.1–9).
There was a distinctive mode of writing for each type of document. Letters and contracts were written in a single column on a roll held vertically, perpendicular to the fibers and parallel to the joins. Although a letter frequently continued on the verso, contracts rarely did (exceptions are TAD B1.1; 2.3; 3.3; 4.4). All other texts were written in columns on a roll held horizontally, parallel to the fibers and perpendicular to the joins. At the end of the fifth century a few contracts were also written this way (TAD B4.6; 7.1–3).
Letters may be classified according to four categories—private, communal, official, and satrapal. At least eighteen letters may be assigned to the first category (TAD A2.1–7; 3.1–11). They are dispatched by peripatetic correspondents, Jewish and Aramean soldiers receiving government allotments (prs [TAD A2.3:8, 3.3:3; B4.2:6]). Their letters send and seek greetings, communicate matters of concern, issue instructions, enter requests, and occasionally contain such a significant piece of historical information as the succession to the throne of Nepherites in Epiph (= 27 September–26 October 399 BCE [TAD A 3.9]).
The ten papyri in the communal archive of leader and perhaps chief priest Jedaniah, son of Gemariah, are historically the most significant of the Elephantine texts (TAD A4.1–10). The fragmentary Passover letter sent to him in 419/18 by one Hananiah instructs the Jewish garrison in the proper observance of the two festivals (TAD A4.1). Three other letters attest to the tension between the devotees of YHW and of Khnum (TAD A4.2–4) that ultimately led to the destruction of the Jewish temple on the island by the Khnum priests in connivance with the Persian governor Vidranga (TAD A4.5–10). The most informative pieces are two drafts of a petition addressed to Bagohi, governor of Judah, on 25 November 407 BCE by Jedaniah and his colleagues, with a copy to the sons of Sanballat, governor of Samaria (TAD A7–8). In an oral memorandum, Bagohi and Delaiah, son of Sanballat, agreed to a limited reconstruction of the temple “on its site as it was formerly” but omitted permission to offer animal sacrifices (TAD A4.9). Blood on the altar was to be the exclusive prerogative of Jerusalem. The Jews at Elephantine accepted the limitation and in a further petition to “our lord,” perhaps Arsames, offered him a rich reward if he would allow reconstruction of the temple (TAD A4.10). The last contract of the Anani(ah) archive (13 December 402 BCE) records the continued presence of the temple of YHW (TAD B3.12:18–19), indicating that if it had not yet been rebuilt, its place had not been taken by another structure.
Five fragmentary letters may be classified as official, two from Elephantine concerning an hereditary land lease (TAD A5.2, 5), one from Saqqara dated 436/35 BCE (TAD A5.1), and two of unknown provenance (TAD A5.3–4). The persons involved in these letters are either Persians or Egyptians. The letters associated with the satrapal house of Arsames (TAD A6) illustrate well the bureaucratic procedures pursued in handling complaints and issuing instructions and orders.
The most intact of all the papyri are those acquired by purchase on the antiquities market. These constitute two family archives. The other legal documents (loosely referred to as “contracts”) may be divided into five categories—deeds of obligation (TAD B4.1–6), conveyances (TAD B5.1–5), documents of wifehood (TAD B6.1–4), judicial oaths (TAD B7.1–4), and court records (TAD B8.1–12). Representative documents from the first three categories appear also in the family archives. The parties regularly (except for Egyptians), and witnesses and neighbors occasionally, were identified by ethnicity (Aramean, Babylonian, Bactrian, Caspian, Jew, Khwarezmian), occupation ([member] of a [military] detachment, builder, boatman, [temple] servitor), and usually by residence (Elephantine, Syene) as well. The numerous witness signatures attest a high degree of literacy among the colonists.
The Mibtaḥiah archive contains eleven documents and spans three generations (471–410 BCE) of one of Elephantine's leading Jewish families. Mahseiah (“YH is refuge”), son of Jedaniah, may have named his daughter Mibtaḥiah (“YH is trust”) with the biblical verses Psalms 91:2, 118:8–9 (ḥsh > bṭ;ḥ) in mind, and she gave her two sons the patronyms Jedaniah and Mahseiah. Mibtaḥiah was twice married, the second time to an Egyptian, Esḥor, later known as Nathan. She accumulated three houses and four slaves; the houses passed on to her eldest son and the slaves were divided between her two sons (TAD B2.1–11).
The Anani(ah) archive contains thirteen documents and spans two generations (456–402 BCE) of two interrelated families. The first family consists of the minor temple official Anani(ah), son of Azariah; his Egyptian slave-wife, Ta(pa)met; their two children, Pelatiah/Pilti and Jehoishma; and their son-in-law, Anani(ah), son of Haggai. The second family consists of the creditor and slave owner Meshullam, son of Zaccur, and his son, also named Zaccur. The elder Anani(ah) had but one house, acquired as a piece of abandoned property from a Caspian couple (TAD B3.4 [437 BCE]) and disposed of in parts and stages by bequest and sale, first to his wife (TAD B3.5), then to his daughter (TAD B3.7, 10, 11), and finally to his namesake son-in-law (TAD B3.12). When the elder Anani(ah) married the handmaiden Ta(pa)met, her master Meshullam barely provided her with a dowry (TAD B3.3), but Anani(ah)'s emancipated daughter was handsomely endowed by her adoptive brother, Zaccur (TAD B3.8).
Literary and Historical Text.
Eleven sheets containing fourteen columns of the Aḥiqar text from Elephantine are preserved (TAD C1.1). The first five columns are narrative, relating the story of the “wise and skillful scribe … counselor of all Assyria and [be]arer of the seal” for King Sennacherib and his son, Esarhaddon. Decipherment of the erased customs account (TAD C3.7) underlying the Aḥiqar text corroborates the present order of the narrative, mandates a rearrangement of the plates with the proverbs, and suggests that the conclusion of the narrative followed the end of the proverbs. Being on the outside of the scroll, it was lost (introduction to TAD C1.1–2). The two fragments of The Prophecy of Ḥor and The Demise of Righteousness (TAD C1.2) are joined together by a thin strip in the middle (as proposed by Bezalel Porten and Ada Yardeni). The upper half of a fragmentary column is preserved on each side. On the recto the Egyptian magician Ḥor, known also from demotic texts, elusively tells the pharaoh “your bones shall not go down to Sheol.” The verso details the breakdown of social order followed by a divinely proclaimed redeemer.
The one historical text is a fragmentary copy of the original Bisitun inscription dispatched by Darius I to centers throughout the empire recording his victory over nineteen rebels in one year (TAD C2.1). The original Aramaic text must have consisted of eleven columns of seventeen to eighteen lines each, yielding a total of approximately 190 lines, of which seventy-nine have been recovered. A date in the Record of Memoranda on the verso (year 7 = 417 BCE [TAD C3.13:34]) suggests that the present copy may have been written to commemorate the hundredth anniversary of the great victories of Darius I, which fell shortly after the accession of his later namesake.
Accounts and Lists.
There are significant accounts from the three major sites, dealing with the disbursement or receipt of such commodities as silver (TAD C3.2, 4–5, 7, 11, 15, 25), grain (TAD C3.13–14, 16–18, 25–28), wine and oil (TAD C31, 7, 11–12, 18, 28–29). Only a few are intact. The most significant religiously and onomastically is the eight-column Collection Account from Elephantine, probably of 400 (TAD C3.15), listing 128 Jewish contributors of two shekels each, initially designated for YHW the God but at the end divided up between him and the deities Eshembethel and Anathbethel. Economically, the most significant text is the newly deciphered (Yardeni and Porten) Customs Account (TAD C3.7). Written on both sides of a fifty-sheet scroll In 475 BCE at one of Egypt's custom's stations, either Migdol (Jer. 44:1, 46:14; Ez. 29:10, 30:6; TAD A3.3:4), Daphne-Tahpanhes (Jer. 43:9), or Memphis (TAD C3.8IIIA:11, IIIB:16), it was subsequently erased to make way for the Words of Aḥiqar. It attests to forty-two sailings in ten months of four different kinds of ships (thirty-six Ionian and six “Phoenician”) and the duty (mndt') in kind paid on entry and the dues (tšy = t3 šy.t) paid on exported natron. The import duty on the Greek ships includes gold staters, silver, Ionian wine, oil, a wooden support(?), coated and uncoated jars.
The “Phoenician” ships bring a variety of items—Sidonian wine of year 10 and of year 11; two kinds of iron (pkrn and sny), bronze, and tin; wood by weight and by number, including four different cuts of cedar (sy [“beam”?], mlwt [“board”?], pq [“plank”?], and p῾my [translation unknown]); two kinds of wool, designated by their village of origin; and clay. The turnaround time is one to three weeks, and a certain Glaphyros is known to have sailed twice (TAD C3.7Kv2:22f; Gr2:15f). Some Babylonian-Egyptian double dates allow the reconstruction of several sheets from the Memphis Shipyard Journal for the years 473–471 (TAD C3.8). North Saqqara has yielded several very fragmentary land registries (TAD C3.20–24), using Persian words to describe the type of property (rstkh, 'wpsth) and measuring the area in arouras ('šln). Third-century BCE accounts, probably from Edfu, display Greek names (e.g., Apollonios, Bacchios, Herakleides, Hermias, and Jason) alongside a few northwest Semitic ones (e.g., Abdi, Abieti ['byty], Judah, Nathan, and Shabbethai).
Ethnically, the nine lists (TAD C4.1–9) display the cosmopolitan nature of society in the Persian period. A single onomastic group usually dominates each list. Lacking or missing title, they conceal their intent. Perhaps they constituted military units, collection lists (TAD C3.15), or ration lists (TAD C3.14, 27).
Ostraca and Jar Inscriptions.
Ostraca are texts written on pot shards and limestone flakes, while jar inscriptions were written, incised, or inked on the jar, usually at the top, at the time of its manufacture, transport, or storage. Some 330 Aramaic ostraca have been discovered, almost all from excavations at Elephantine (table 2). Unlike the papyri, which appeared in major collections, the ostraca were never assembled into one publication and there is no standard method of citation. There are twenty-six jar inscriptions, mostly fragmentary, from Elephantine, Saqqara, and Edfu (table 3).
The ostraca may be divided into four groups—letters, lists, accounts, and two abecedaries. The largest category is letters. Almost all of the Elephantine ostraca were written by a single scribe in the first quarter of the fifth century BCE taking dictation at Syene from soldiers needing to communicate with their family and friends in Elephantine. The letters were written on randomly shaped ostraca that measured roughly 7 × 10 cm, beginning regularly on the concave side and continuing on the convex and averaging a dozen lines. A ferry service plied the waters of the Nile between Syene (Aswan) and Elephantine (Gazirat al-Aswan) in Persian times as today, and these notes were sent with the boatman of these ships. Communication was meant to be immediate, and often a sense of urgency pervades the letters. They are full of reports and requests for objects and information. One ostracon reports an unsettling experience—“Now, lo a dream I saw and from that time I am very hot. May Jḥamoliah see my wellbeing” (table 2.1). In the realm of religion, they are a valuable source of information on divine epithets, divine intervention in personal affairs, the Jewish temple, oaths, Sabbath, Passover, and purity. The divine name spelled YHW in the later papyri is written in the early papyri and in all these ostraca YHH. Orthographic evidence indicates that it was pronounced something like “Yaho” and not “Yahu.” One of the strangest instructions, backed by an oath-supported threat, is contained in a letter to the woman Islaḥ, “Now, behold, legumes I shall send tomorrow. Meet the boat tomorrow on the Sabbath. Lest, if they get lost, by the life of YHH, if not (= surely) yo[ur] life I shall take. Do not rely on Meshullemeth and on Shemaiah” (table 2.63). Almost as cryptic is the query of Hoshaiah, “Send me (word) when you will do (observe/perform) the Passover” (table 2.40). Is it a matter of calendar or purity? One ostracon may be reconstructed to read, “Do not dispatch to me bread without it being sealed (ḥtm). Lo, all the jars are impure (ṭ;m'n). Behold, the bread which [yo]u disp[atched] to me yesterday is im[pure]” (table 2.62).” The marzeaḥ, barely alluded to in the Bible (Jer. 16:5; Am. 6:7), appears prominently in one of the ostraca (table 2.46).
Fifteen ostraca may be classified as lists (table 2a), twelve as accounts (table 2b), and they bear the same features as their papyrus counterparts. Some are onomastically homogeneous (all Jewish [tables 2.8 = 2b.3] or all Egyptian [tables 2.6 = 2b.2]), and others are mixed (tables 2.79 = 2a.14). One exclusively Egyptian list, uniquely written on both sides, includes a couple names that are popular in demotic documents but otherwise absent from the Aramaic texts—Es(p)metsheps ('smtšbs [“He of the glorious staff”]) and Espetensene ('spṭ;nsny [“He of him who is in Bigeh”]) (tables 2.80 = 2a.15). The ostraca accounts are all Ptolemaic and probably all, with but one exception, from Edfu. The names are followed by monetary or other notations. The names in one account are distinctly mixed—Greek (Theodore [twdrs], Egyptian (Taba), Hebrew (Shabbethit and Abram), and Aramaic (Abieti) (tables 2.3 = 2b.1). Several of the Jewish names are characteristic of the Ptolemaic period and do not appear in Achaemenid Elephantine—Abieti (“[my] father will come”), Abram, Dallui, Jidleh, Jotakum (“YW, may you arise”), Judith, and Simeon. The abecedaries come from Elephantine (table 2.78) and North Saqqara (table 2.81).
Eight of the Elephantine jar inscriptions were written by the same scribe (table 3.3, 7–8, 10, 13–14, 16, 18). Two reconstructed Elephantine jars show three names each, one written in Aramaic by this scribe at the top of the jar near the handle and two in a different hand in Phoenician farther down, one below the other (table 3.13–14) A large percentage of the Phoenician theophorous names are compounded with Ptaḥ or Apis, the deities of Memphis, and so the jars must have subsequently passed into the hands of Phoenicians there and only later made their way down to Elephantine. Numerous sherds bear the Phoenician inscription lmlk followed by the ṭ;et-like sign (believed by some to mean “royal measure” [Orli Goldwasser and Joseph Naveh, “The Origin of the Ṭet Symbol,” Israel Exploration Journal 26 (1976): 15–19]), and two sherds carry this formula in Aramaic (table 3.5). Two jars from Abu Sir contain an unexplained fragmentary text—lslk ῾m lbws̆' ḥ /// /// /// (table 3.1–2). One fragmentary inscription reads “To Psamshek … cohort commander (rb kṣr'; table 3.15). The Saqqara jars contain an incised potter's mark (bb [table 3.19a]), an inked notation of contents (mglt or simply mg [table 3.22, 26], “scroll,” that is, papyrus rolls), or a dedication “To Nabu” (table 3.23), known to have a temple at Syene (TAD A2.3:1; table 10.8).
Sundry Inscriptions with Names.
The inscriptions on other small objects (stone plaques [table 4], wood [table 5], seals and bullae [table 6], statuettes [table 7], silver bowls [table 8], mummy labels [table 9], and coins), as well as on sarcophagi (table 10), and tombstones (table 11) are mostly names. The seals, bullae, and coins, some of the wooden inscriptions, a bowl, a statuette, two mummy labels, three sarcophagi, and a tomb inscription all have but a single name each. Once more, the outstanding feature about these fifteen names is their onomastic and presumably ethnic diversity—Aramean (Aḥinuri, Hadadezer, and Ezer [seals (tables 5.6, 6.1, 4)]; Ammishezib [wooden palette (table 5.3)]; Sharah [mummy label (table 9.7)], Assyrian (Belsaruṣur [statuette (table 7.1]), Egyptian (Ḥarkhebe [seal (table 6.6)], Ḥor [sarcophagus (table 10.2)]), and Teehur [mummy label (table 9.8)]), Hebrew (Shabbethai [sarcophagus (table 10.1)] and Uri [tombstone (table 11.6)]), and Persian (Bagamarazdiya [seal (table 6.2)] and Bukhsha [sarcophagus (table 10.15)]). As recently read by Naveh, one seal bears the Arabian name Ubaid son of Siniyad (table 6.5).
Most of the names recorded on mummy labels (table 9), sarcophagi (table 10), and tombstones (table 11) give both prenomen and patronym. As expected, Elephantine shows Jews (Shabah, son of Hosea [mummy label (table 9.1)]; see also table 4.2) and Syene, Arameans (Abutai, daughter of Shamashnuri [sarcophagus (table 10.3)]). The material from South Saqqara displays a mixed Aramean-Egyptian ambience with a touch of Persian. Burial proximity and prosopographical considerations on six sarcophagi permit the reconstruction of three family groups—(1) †Agri(ya), son of †Bethelzabad, son of Eshemram (tables 9.3, 6; 10.10); (2) Ḥeremnathan, son of Besa, son of Zabdi (table 9.5; 10.12); (3) Ḥeremnathan, son of Peṭ;(e)esi, son of Sharah, son of Pasi (table, 10.7, 16–17, 20). At least three of the dead were temple officials, one far from home—the priest Ḥeremshezib, son of Ashah (table 10.5); “Sharah the servitor” (table 9.7), who may be the same as the above Sharah; and Sheil, a priest of Nabu at Syene (table 10.8). The names of two brothers appear on either side of a ceramic mummy label (table 9.4)—Paḥe, son of Bagadata, and Bagafarna, son of Bagadata. Perhaps they died young and belong to the twin heads from a fragmentary unpublished coffin lid (Egyptian Museum, Cairo, JE 55246). Four of the buried parties are women. The mummy labels were usually placed on the chest of the deceased. The coffin inscriptions were written twice or three times, either inscribed and painted or just painted above the head or on the chest of the lid and on the side, usually at the shoulders on the outside, but twice on the inside (table 10.9, 13), allowing the deceased to “look” at his name. Twelve Jewish tombstones of the Ptolemaic period have been uncovered—three at the necropolis at el-Ibrahimiya in Alexandria and nine in Edfu. Only one of the Alexandrian inscriptions is fully intelligible (table 11.2) and it bears the unique Hebrew names Akabiah, son of Elioenai (“to YW are my eyes [directed]”). Is he related to one of the last biblical Davidic descendants, Akkub, son of Elioenai (1 Chr. 3:24)? Like the Arameans of Saqqara, the Jews of Edfu were buried with their families. Obadiah, son of Simeon, written on a reused offering table (table 11.5), and Nathn(a)i, son of Simeon, (table 11.7) were probably brothers. A third Edfu stone (table 11.4) bears four names, apparently father and children—Azgad, son of Mdy/Mry and the three persons related to Azgad, namely the woman Shelomzi(o)n, Zebadiah, and Meshullam. Azgad appears as the name of a family head among the Judean repatriates (Ezr. 2:12, 8:12; Neh. 7:17, 10:16), and the name Shelomzion (“welfare of Zion”) is well known in Second Temple times, as are Nathn(a)i, Obadiah, and Simeon.
A unique memorial inscription of uncertain provenience (table 11.14) reads “To Anan ('nn), son of Elish ('lys̆), the priest of Baal, husband (b῾l) of Anoth (῾nwt).” Neither of the personal names is attested elsewhere, and the form of the divine name is strange. Some scholars doubt the inscription's authenticity. Other items inscribed on these small objects include accounts on both sides of a wooden palette (table 5.5), a duplicate date formula (“On the 24th of Ab, year 2 Artaxerx[es]”) incised and inked on a triangular limestone plaque from the Apries palace in Memphis (table 4.1), and the words 'wy ly, (“woe unto me”?) incised on a small figurine (table 7.3).
Funerary, Votive, and Dedicatory Inscriptions.
The Aramaic-speaking peoples in Egypt were not only buried in Egyptian style but they also produced Egyptianizing funerary stelae and offering tables (table 12). The stelae depict familiar funerary scenes in two or three upper registers with a one- or four-line Aramaic inscription at the bottom (table 12.1–3) or between two registers (table 12.5–6). One stela (table 12.1) also has a hieroglyphic inscription. The embalmed deceased is lying on a (lion) couch above four canopic jars (table 12.2–3), flanked by the goddesses Nephthys and Isis (table 12.3) and anointed by the god Anubis (table 12.1, 3–4). A second register depicts mourners in Semitic garb and coiffure (table 12.1, 4–5). The third register, usually the upper one, shows offerings being made by the deceased to Osiris (table 12.1, 3), with Isis (and Nephthys) standing behind him. Most of the names and patronyms or matronyms of these defunct Arameans are Egyptian and they are to be blessed by Osiris—Taba, daughter of the woman Taḥapi (table 12.3); Ankhoḥapi, son of the woman Taḥabes (table 12.5); Tumma (tm' [Aramaic]), daughter of Bocchoris (bkrnp) (table 12.2); and Peṭ;eesi, son of Yh' … (table 12.4). The mixed onomastic situation is best illustrated by a dated stela (Meḥir, year 4 of Xerxes = 21 May–19 June 482 BCE [table 12.1]) prepared by the Aramean Absali for his Aramean father, Abah, son of Egyptian Ḥor and Aramean mother, Aḥatabu, daughter of the Jew Adaiah. A new reading (Yardeni) shows that the couple came from the city ḥstmḥ = Ḫ3s.t Ṯmḥy, near Marea on the Lybian border (Herodotus, 2.30; Henri Gauthier, Dictionnaire des noms géographiques contenus dans les textes hiéroglyphiques, vol. 4, Cairo, 1927, p. 159). One stela with three Egyptian loanwords (table 12.3) is a quatrain of three four-beat bicola with an occasional hint of internal rhyme and a concluding three-beat bicolon—“Nothing of evil has she done/Nor slander of anyone has she spoken at all.” The four-line inscription on the offering table (table 12.6) begins “the offering table (ḥtpy) for the offering (lqrbt) of Banit to Osiris-Ḥapi (= Serapis) made Abitab, son of Banit, for her” (lh [sic, according to Yardeni]).
The milieu of these stelae may be Egyptian, but the inscription genre background is West Semitic. Comparison may be made with the four inscribed libation bowls from Tell el-Maskhuta in the eastern Delta (table 8.1–4). These votive offerings are inscribed “to Han-Ilat” (lhn'lt); “which Ṣeḥa, son of Abdamru (῾bd῾mrw), offered to Han-Ilat”; “which Qainu, son of Geshem, king of Qedar offered to Han-Ilat”; “Ḥarbek [“Horus (the) falcon”], son of Pasiri, offered to Han-Ilat the goddess.” A generation after Geshem the Arabian opposed Nehemiah's fortification of Jerusalem (Neh. 2:19, 6:1–2, 6), his son and others bearing Egyptian names were worshiping at the shrine of an Arabian goddess in the Nile Delta. A similar bowl, also presumably from Egypt and dated a century later, is inscribed with a single Persian name Tirifarna (tryprn [table 8.5]).
The presence of Persians in Aramaic dedicatory inscriptions is evidenced from a sandstone building inscription from Aswan (table 12.7). An upper panel is possibly missing; what is visible reads “this shrine (brzmdn'), garrison commander of Syene, made in the month of Sivan, that is Meḥir, year seven of Artaxerxes the king (= 6–14 June 458 BCE).…” The inscription follows a pattern known in early Phoenician dedicatory inscriptions (KAI 7) and continued into contemporary Aramaic inscriptions from Cilicia (KAI 258 = Gibson, no. 33). In both the Cilician and Elephantine inscriptions the object described is indicated by a Persian word—patikara- and brazmādāna- respectively. Another Old Persian loanword, drwt (“welfare”), must have introduced the concluding blessing to be bestowed upon the garrison commander (the reading Vidranga is excluded) who built the shrine and set up the inscription.
Almost fifty Aramaic graffiti have been located at eleven locations in Egypt from Giza, Ma῾sarah, and Dahshur near Memphis, through Wadi Sheikh Sheikhun, Abydos, Wadi Hammamat, and Wadi Abu Qwei north of Thebes, Gebel Abu Gurob, Wadi el-Shatt er-Rigal, Aswan, and Wadi el-Hudi, and as far south as Tomas in Lower Nubia (table 13). Almost all of these sites have yielded numerous inscriptions, small and large, and the Aramean-writing travelers followed in the path of their predecessors and contemporaries. Most inscriptions remain in situ and require collation. One was a royal dedicatory inscription of unknown provenance with an incised prenomen (table 13.51). The Egyptian-Aramean ambience is again prominent here—for example, Abitab son of Shumtab, Zur son of Kamam, Belhabeh (“Bel, give him”), Ḥeremnathan, Ḥeremshezib, Jinamiom (yn῾mywm, “may day be pleasant” [unlocated]), Nabunathan, and Shumieti (table 13.3–4, 9, 19, 22, 27, 33–34, 51) are Aramean, and Esḥor, Ḥori, Patou, Peṭ;emun, Peṭ;eesi, and Peṭ;eneesi son of Peṭ;osiri are Egyptian (table 12.7–8, 13–14, 20, 23–24, 26–27). One name is Babylonian ([Mar]dukshumukin [table 13.1]), another possibly Arabian (Ḥaggag son of Ablat [table 13.12]), and a couple may be Anatolian (table 13.17–18). Not one is distinctly Jewish. At some sites the traveler simply wrote his name (Ma῾sarah, Dahshur, Gebel Abu-Gurob, and Tomas). Often he incised a proskynema, that is, an obeisance—“blessed be PN (son of PN) to/before DN.” At the temple of Seti I in Abydos (table 13.7–18), the visitor came, along with so many others, as a pilgrim to Osiris. Elsewhere other deities were invoked—Horus, Isis, and Khnum at Wadi el-Shatt er-Rigal (table 13.37–41); the god of the eastern desert, Min, at Wadi Abu Qwei and probably at Wadi Sheikh Sheikhun (table 13.6, 26–29); and Shamash (or Sun), “the great god,” the god of the rock and the god of Egypt in Wadi el-Hudi above Aswan (table 13.43–45, 47). The Giza graffito records the arrival of a caravan (table 13.1); that in Wadi Hammamat is an abecedary (table 13.25); and A. H. Sayce imagined the word by, “house,” written three times at the Aswan sandstone quarry (table 13.42). The longest graffito is dated, runs nine lines (table 13.47), and contains a blessing formula whose first part is unique and whose second half is reminiscent of an epistolary praescriptio—“blessed be he who wrote this inscription before the god of the mountain and the god of Egypt that they grant me welfare and favor … and blessed be he who will read this inscri[ption]” (cf. TAD A4.3:2–3, 4.7:1–2]).
Last but not least and perhaps the most fascinating of all the Aramaic texts is an extremely fragmentary seventeen-panel inscription in a cave some 8 km (5 mi.) northeast of Sheikh Fadl. It was discovered by Flinders Petrie while excavating at Bahnasa (Oxyrynchus) and reported by Noel Aimé-Giron (Ancient Egypt 2 : 38–43). The text mentions King Taharqa, Pharaoh Necho, and a Psamtik/Psammetichus (but not the king of that name). A tantalizing line reads l' 'kl 'šbqnh 'škb ῾mh rḥm 'nh lhy [according to Ada Yardeni, not lḥy/sgy, “I cannot leave her. I shall lie with her. I love her abundantly.” A cryptic colophon mentions “year 5.”The tables on the following pages, compiled by Bezalel Porten, are supplements to his article “Egyptian Aramaic Texts,” which appears in volume 2, pages 213–219. The abbreviations below are used in the tables; some shortened forms of bibliographic data are also provided in full in the bibliography of Porten's article.
ÄM = Ägyptisches Museum, Berlin
Aimé-Giron = Aimé-Giron, N., Textes araméens d'Égypte. Cairo, 1931
ASAE = Annales du Service des Antiquités de l'Égypte
AÖAW = Anzeiger der österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften
Berlin = Staatliche Museen, Berlin
BIFAO = Bulletin de l'Institut Français d'Archéologie Orientale du Caire
BM = British Museum, London
BSOAS = Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies
Cairo = Egyptian Museum, Cairo
CdE = Chronique d'Égypte
CG = Clermont-Ganneau collection, Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, Paris
CRAI = Comptes rendus des séances de l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres
CIS = Corpus Inscriptionum Semiticarum
EVO = Egitto e Vicino Oriente
ESE = Lidzbarski, M., Ephemeris für semitische Epigraphik. 3 vols. Giessen, 1902–1915
Gibson = Gibson, J. C. L., Textbook of Syrian Semitic Inscriptions. Vol. 2. Oxford, 1975
Grelot = Grelot, P., Documents araméens d'Égypte. Paris, 1972.
Herr = Herr, L., The Scripts of Ancient Northwest Semitic Seals. Missoula, 1978
IEJ = Israel Exploration Journal
JAOS = Journal of the American Oriental Society
JE = Journal d'Entrée, Egyptian Museum, Cairo
JRAS = Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society
KAI = Donner, H. and Röllig, W., Kanaanäische und aramäische Inschriften. Wiesbaden, 1966
Krug. = Lidzbarski, M., Phönizische und aramäische Krugaufschriften aus Elephantine. Berlin, 1912
London = British Museum, London
MAI = Mémoires presentés par divers savants à l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres
MDAIK = Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts, Abteilung Kairo.
NESE = R. Degen, W. W. Müller, and W. Röllig, Neue Ephemeris für semitische Epigraphik. Weisbaden, 1972–1978.
OLP = Orientalia Lovaniensia Periodica
OLZ = Orientalistische Literaturzeitung
Oxford = Bodleian Library, Oxford
Paris = Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, Paris
PSBA = Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archaeology
RA = Revue d'Assyriologie et d'Archéologie Orientale
RAO = Recueil d'Archéologie Orientale
RÉJ = Revue des Études Juives
RÉS = Répertoire d'Épigraphie Semitique
RHR = Revue de l'Histoire des Religions
RSO = Rivista degli Studi Orientali
RT = Recueil de Travaux Relatifs à la Philologie et à l'Archéologie Égyptiennes et Assyriennes
Sachau = Sachau, E., Aramäische Papyrus und Ostraka aus einer jüdischen Militärkolonie zu Elephantine. 2 vols. Leipzig, 1911.
Sayce-Cowley = Sayce, A. H., and Cowley, A. E., Aramaic Papyri Discovred at Assuan. London, 1906.
TAD A,B,C,D = Porten, B., and Yardeni, A., Textbook of Aramaic Documents from Ancient Egypt, Newly Copied, Edited, and Translated into Hebrew and English. Vols. 1–3, Jerusalem, 1986–1993; vol. 4, in preparation.
WZKM = Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde des Morgenlandes
Table 1. Chronological List of the Discovery of Papyri and Parchments. Forty-one separate finds or acquisitions between 1815 and 1988
|Discovery (Publication)||Item||Site||Discoverer/Acquirer||Museum/Library||Editio Princeps||TAD A-D|
|1.||1815–1819 (1960)||2 fragmentary letters||Elephantine||Giovanni Battista Belzoni||Museo Civico, Padua||Edda Bresciani||A3.3–4|
|2.||1824 (1889)||Fragmentary letter||Unknown||Bernardino Drovetti||Museo Egizio, Turin||CIS, vol. 2.1, 144||A5.3|
|3.||1825 (1889)||Tale of Hor b. Punesh||Unknown||Duc de Blacas||British Library, London||CIS, vol. 2.1, 145||C1.2|
|4.||1826 (1889)||Disbursement of wine||Unknown||Drovetti||Louvre, Paris||CIS, vol. 2.1, 146||C3.12|
|5.||1827 (1889)||Fragmentary list||Unknown||Stefano Borgia||Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Vatican City||CIS, vol. 2.1, 148||C4.9|
|6.||1827 (1889)||Treasury account||Unknown||Henry Salt||Musei Vaticani, Vatican City||CIS, vol. 2.1, 147||C3.19|
|7.||1842–1845 (1893)||Court record||Unknown||Karl Richard Lepsius||Staatliche Museen, Berlin||CIS, vol. 2.1, 149||B8.5|
|8.||pre-1862 (1893)||Fragmentary letter||Serapeum, Memphis||F. Auguste Mariette||Egyptian Museum, Cairo||CIS, vol. 2.1, 151||A5.4|
|9.||pre-1862 (1893)||Fragmentary letter||Serapeum, Memphis||Mariette||Cairo||CIS, vol. 2.1, 152 (Cowley No. 77)||D1.16|
|10.||pre-1862 (1893)||Fragmentary land registry||Serapeum, Memphis||Mariette||Cairo||CIS, vol. 2.1, 150||C3.21|
|11.||pre-1884 (1974)||Fragmentary account||Unknown||Wilhelm Fröhner||Universitätsbibliothek, Göttingen||Rainer Degen||C3.2|
|12.||pre-1887 (1923)||Fragmentary account||Unknown||John Gardner Wilkinson||Harrow School Museum, London||Cowley No. 83||C3.27|
|13.||1888 (1906)||Abu Sir||Cairo||RÉS 1789 = ESE, vol. 3, 127||D5.25|
|14.||1888 (1906)||Abu Sir||Cairo||RÉS 1790 = ESE, vol. 3, 127–128||D5.11|
|15.||(1893)||Fragmentary account||Unknown||Cairo||CIS II/1 153||C3.25|
|16.||pre-1903 (1915)||Fragmentary account||Saqqara||Wilhelm Spiegelberg||Cairo||Mark Lidzbarski||C3.1|
|17.||1893 (1953)||Anani(ah) family archive (13), 2 letters, 1 fragmentary list||Elephantine||Charles Edwin Wilbour||Brooklyn Museum||Emil G. Kraeling||A3.9 B3.2–13 B6.1 C3.16|
|18.||1898 (1903)||Fragmentary letter||Elephantine||Spiegelberg||Bibliothèque Nationale, Strasbourg||Julius Euting||A4.5|
|19.||1901 (1903)||Loan contract||Elephantine||Archibald Henry Sayce||Bodleian Library, Oxford||Arthur Ernest Cowley||B4.2|
|20.||1902 (1902)||Fragmentary list||Elephantine||Gaston Maspero||Acadámie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, Paris||Melchior de Vogüé (Cowley No. 79)||D3.24|
|21.||1902 (1905, 1917, 1971, 1983)||Fragmentary letter||Saqqara||Maspero||Paris||Charles Clermont-Ganneau, Maurice Sznycer, Bezalel Porten||A5.1|
|22.||1902 (1902, 1986)||Fragmentary letter||Elephantine||Maspero||Paris||de Vogüé, Porten||A5.5|
|23.||1904 (1906)||Mibtahiah family archive (10 texts)||Elephantine||Lady William Cecil, Robert Mond||Oxford (1), Cairo (9)||Sayce, Cowley||B2.1–4, 6–11|
|24.||1904 (1988)||Fragmentary contract||Elephantine||Collection of Mrs. Raden Ajoe Jodjana||Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, Leiden||Jacob Hoftijzer||D2.12|
|25.||1906 (1907)||Scroll of accounts||Edfu? (acquired at Luxor)||Sayce||Oxford||Sayce, Cowley||C3.28|
|26.||1906 (1915)||Fragmentary letter||Edfu? (acquired at Luxor)||Sayce||Oxford||Cowley (Cowley 82)||D1.17|
|27.||1906–1908 (1911, 1970, 1974, 1978, 1988)||20 letters, 18 contracts, 9 lists/accounts, Bisitun, Ahiqar (with erased Customs Account), fragments||Elephantine||Otto Rubensohn, Friedrich Zucker||Berlin, Cairo||Eduard Sachau, Zuhair Shunnar, Degen, Porten||A3.1–2, 5–8, 10; 4.1–4, 6–10; 5.2; 6.1–2; B3.1; 4.1, 3–6; 5.1–2, 4–5; 6.2–4; 7.1–4; 8.5; C1.1; 2.1; 3.3–4, 7, 9, 13–15; 4.4–8|
|28.||1913 (1921)||Fragmentary list||Saqqara||James Edward Quibell||Cairo||Noel Aimé-Giron||C4.1|
|29.||1924–1925 (1931)||Fragmentary account||South Saqqara||Gustave Jéquier||Cairo||Aimé-Giron||C3.26|
|30.||1926 (1931)||Memphis Shipyard Journal; fragmentary list; fragments||South Saqqara||Cecil Mallaby Firth||Cairo||Aimé-Giron||partly in C3.8; 4.2|
|31.||(1931)||Fragments||Unknown||Cairo||Aimé-Giron||partly in C3.17; 4.2|
|32.||1930s (1962)||Consignment of oil||Edfu?||Given by Giulio Farina to Giorgio Levi Della Vida||Istituto di Studi del Vicino Oriente, University of Rome||Bresciani||C3.29|
|33.||1933 (1954)||13 parchment letters; 12 plates of fragments||Unknown||Ludwig Borchardt||Oxford||Godfrey R. Driver||A6.1–16|
|34.||1934–1935 (1959)||Fragmentary letter||El-Hibeh||Evaristo Breccia||Museo Archaeologico, Florence||Bresciani||A3.11|
|35.||pre-1936 (1936)||Joint venture agreement||El-Hibeh||Bruno Meissner||Bayerische Staats-bibliothek, Munich||Hans Bauer, Meissner||B1.1|
|36.||1940 (1971)||Fragmentary account||Saqqara||Zaki Saad||Cairo||Bresciani||C3.10|
|37.||1942 (1948)||Letter of Adon King of Ekron||Saqqara||Saad||Cairo||André Dupont-Sommer||A1.1|
|38.||1945 (1966)||8 private letters||Hermopolis (for Luxor and Syene)||Sami Gabra||Faculty of Archaeology, University of Cairo||Bresciani, Murad Kamil||A2.1–7|
|39.||1966–1967, 1971–1973 (1983)||202 papyrus fragments||North Saqqara||Walter B. Emery, Geoffrey T. Martin||Cairo||Judah Benzion Segal||partly in B4.7; 5.6; 8.1–4, 6–12; C3.6, 11, 18, 20, 22–24; 4.3|
|40.||c. 1965–1970||2-line epistolary formula on back of demotic papyrus||Unknown||Don José Palau-Ribes Casamit-Jana||Seminari di Papirologia, Barcelona (Sant Cugat del Vallès)||Unpublished||D1.34|
|41.||1988||2 lists + fragments||Elephantine||German Archaeological Institute||Cairo||Wolfgang Röllig||D3.15–17|
Tables 2–13. Alphabetic Museum List of Inscriptions on Pottery, Wood, and Stone
Table 2. Ninety Ostraca (Letters, Accounts, Lists, Abecedary)
|Museum/Library Numbers; Acquistion Source||Place and Date of Discovery/Acquistion||Initial Publications||Fitzmyer/Kaufman Aramaic Bibliography|
|1. Berlin P. 1137; Adolf Erman||Elephantine; 1886||CIS, vol. 2.1, 137 = Sachau 78 (Pl. 65,3) = KAI 270 = Gibson 123||B.3.c.47|
|2. Berlin P. 8763; Ludwig Borchardt||Elephantine; 1897||Sayce-Cowley P = RÉS 496, 1804||B.3.c.42/48 APO 77/1|
|3. Berlin P. 10678; Carl Schmidt||Edfu; 1905||Sachau 75 (Pl. 62,1) = RÉS 1794||B.3.f.33.1|
|4. Berlin P. 10679; Otto Rubensohn||Elephantine; 1905||Sachau 77 (Pl. 64,2) = RÉS 1792||B.3.c.21|
|5. Berlin P. 10680; Rubensohn||Elephantine; 1905||Sachau 78 (Pl. 65,2) = RÉS 1795||B.3.c.23|
|6. Berlin P. 10852; Schmidt||Edfu||Sachau 75 (Pl. 62,2)||B.3.f.33.2|
|7. Berlin P. 10964; Schmidt||Edfu; 1906||Sachau 81 (Pl. 68,1)||B.3.f.33.3|
|8. Berlin P. 10974; Schmidt||Edfu; 1906||Sachau 81 (Pl. 68,2)||B.3.f.33.4|
|9. Berlin P. 11363; Friedrich Zucker||Elephantine; 1908||Sachau 77 (Pl. 64,3)||B.3.c.48 APO 79/3|
|10. Berlin P. 11365; Zucker||Elephantine; 1908||Sachau 80 (Pl. 67,5)|
|11. Berlin P. 11366; Zucker||Elephantine; 1908||Sachau 84 (Pl. 71,1+2)|
|12. Berlin P. 11368; Zucker||Elephantine; 1908||Sachau 80 (Pl. 67,7)||B.3.c.48 APO 80/7|
|13. Berlin P. 11369; Rubensohn||Elephantine; 1906–1907||Sachau 76 (Pl. 63,3)||B.3.c.48 APO 76/3|
|14. Berlin P. 11370; Rubensohn||Elephantine; 1906–1907||Sachau 80 (Pl. 67,4)|
|15. Berlin P. 11371; Rubensohn||Elephantine; 1906–1907||Sachau 79 (Pl. 66,1)|
|16. Berlin P. 11372; Rubensohn||Elephantine; 1906–1907||unpublished|
|17. Berlin P. 11373; Rubensohn||Elephantine; 1906–1907||Sachau 79 (Pl. 66,3)|
|18. Berlin P. 11374; Rubensohn||Elephantine; 1906–1907||Sachau 79 (Pl. 66,5)||B.3.c.48 APO 79/5|
|19. Berlin P. 11375; Rubensohn||Elephantine; 1906–1907||Sachau 80 (Pl. 67,2)||B.3.c.48 APO 80/2|
|20. Berlin P. 11376; Rubensohn||Elephantine; 1906–1907||Sachau 84 (Pl. 71,5)||B.3.c.48 APO 84/5|
|21. Berlin P. 11377; Rubensohn||Elephantine; 1906–1907||Sachau 76 (Pl. 63,5)||B.3.c.48 APO 76/5|
|22. Berlin P. 11378; Rubensohn||Elephantine; 1906–1907||Sachau 80 (Pl. 67,3)||B.3.c.48 APO 80/3|
|23. Berlin P. 11379; Rubensohn||Elephantine; 1906–1907||Sachau 84 (Pl. 71,7)||B.3.c.43|
|24. Berlin P. 11380; Rubensohn||Elephantine; 1906–1907||Sachau 78 (Pl. 65,1)||B.3.c.48 APO 78/1|
|25. Berlin P. 11381; Rubensohn||Elephantine; 1906–1907||Sachau 84 (Pl. 71,3)|
|26. Berlin P. 11382; Rubensohn||Elephantine; 1906–1907||Sachau 80 (Pl. 67,1)||B.3.c.48 APO 80/1|
|27. Berlin P. 11453; Rubensohn||Elephantine; 1906–1907||Sachau 79 (Pl. 66,4)||B.3.c.48 APO 79/4|
|28. Berlin P. 12800 (= 17800)||Elephantine?||unpublished|
|29. Berlin P. 17801||Elephantine?||unpublished|
|30. Berlin P. 17802||Elephantine?||unpublished|
|31. Berlin P. 17818||Elephantine?||unpublished|
|32. Berlin P. 17819||Elephantine?||unpublished|
|33. Berlin P. 17820||Elephantine?||unpublished|
|34. Berlin P. 17821||Elephantine?||unpublished|
|35. Bodleian Library, Oxford, Aramaic Inscription (lost) 1; Archibald Henry Sayce||Elephantine; 1901||Sayce-Cowley M = RÉS 492, 1800||B.3.c.36|
|36. Bodleian Aramaic Inscription 2; Sayce||Elephantine; 1901||Sayce-Cowley N = RÉS 493, 1801||B.3.c.37|
|37. Bodleian Aramaic Inscription 3; Sayce||Elephantine; 1901||Sayce-Cowley O = RÉS 494, 1802||B.3.c.48 APE 93|
|38. Bodleian Aramaic Inscription 4; Sayce||Elephantine?||Sayce-Cowley Q = RÉS 497, 1805||B.3.c.29|
|39. Bodleian Aramaic Inscription 6; Sayce||Unknown, 1914||unpublished|
|40. Bodleian Aramaic Inscription 7; Sayce||Elephantine; pre-1911||RÉS 1793||B.3.c.20|
|41. British Museum 14219; Greville John Chester||Elephantine; 1875||CIS, vol. 2.1, 138 = RÉS 495, 1803 = KAI 271||B.3.c.28|
|42. BM 14220; Chester||Elephantine; 1876||CIS, vol. 2.1, 139||B.3.c.48 APE 95|
|43. BM 45035; auction||Unknown; 1906||Porten and Yardeni, Maarav 7 (1991): 207–217|
|44. BM 45036; auction||Unknown; 1906||Porten and Yardeni, Maarav 7 (1991): 217–219|
|45. BM 133028||Unknown; 1906||Segal, Iraq 31 (1969): 173–174||B.3.c.35|
|46. Cairo JE 35468A||Elephantine; 1902||RÉS 1295 = Sayce, PSBA 31 (1909): 154||B.3.c.30|
|47. Cairo JE 35468B||Elephantine; 1902||RÉS 1296 = ESE, vol. 3, 121f = Aimé-Giron 3||B.3.c.31|
|48. Cairo JE 35468C||Elephantine; 1902||RÉS 1297 = ESE, vol. 3, 122f = Aimé-Giron 4||B.3.c.32|
|49. Cairo JE 43464A; Zucker||Elephantine; 1908||Sachau 76 (Pl. 63,2)||B.3.c.41|
|50. Cairo JE 43464B; Rubensohn||Elephantine; 1906–1907||Sachau 76 (Pl. 63,1)||B.3.c.22|
|51. Cairo JE 43464C; Rubensohn||Elephantine; 1906–1907||Sachau 76 (Pl. 63,4)||B.3.c.48 APO 76/4|
|52. Cairo JE 43464D; Zucker||Elephantine; 1908||Sachau 80 (Pl. 67,6)||B.3.c.48 APO 80/6|
|53. Cairo JE 49624||Elephantine; 1925||Aimé-Giron, ASAE 26 (1926): 27–29||B.3.c.28|
|54. Cairo JE 49625||Elephantine; unknown||Aimé-Giron, ASAE 26 (1926): 29–31||B.3.c.48 Aimé-Giron|
|55. Cairo JE 49635||Elephantine; 1924||Aimé-Giron, ASAE 26 (1926): 23–27||B.3.c.27|
|56. Cairo JE 64738; Lacau||Edfu; 1933||Aimé-Giron 113 = BIFAO 38 (1939): 38–40||B.3.f.33.6|
|57. Cairo JE 67040; French-Polish excavations||Edfu; 1937||Aimé-Giron 120 = BIFAO 38 (1939): 57–63||B.3.f.33.7|
|58. Cambridge 131–133; Henry Thompson||Elephantine; pre-1929||Cowley, JRAS (1929): 107–111||B.3.c.34|
|59. Clermont-Ganneau 16||Elephantine; 1907||Dupont-Sommer, ASAE 48 (1948): 109–116||B.3.c.33|
|60. Clermont-Ganneau 44; Jean Clédat||Elephantine; 1907||Dupont-Sommer, Studies Presented to G. R. Driver (1963), pp. 53–58||B.3.c.33|
|61. Clermont-Ganneau 70; Clédat||Elephantine;1907||Dupont-Sommer, RHR 130 (1945): 17–28 (no photo)||B.3.c.33|
|62. Clermont-Ganneau 125?; Clédat?||Elephantine; 1907||Lozachmeur, Semitica 39 (1989): 29–36; Porten and Yardeni, JAOS 113 (1993): 451–455||B.3.c.33|
|63. Clermont-Ganneau 152||Elephantine; 1908||Dupont-Sommer, Semitica 2 (1949): 29–39||B.3.c.33|
|64. Clermont-Ganneau 167||Elephantine; 1908||Dupont-Sommer, CRAI (1947): 179–80 (no photo)||B.3.c.33|
|65. Clermont-Ganneau 169||Elephantine; 1908||Dupont-Sommer, Revue des Études Sémitiques et Babyloniaca (1942–1945): 65–75||B.3.c.33|
|66. Clermont-Ganneau 175||Elephantine; 1908||Dupont-Sommer, CRAI (1947): 181–185 (no photo)||B.3.c.33|
|67. Clermont-Ganneau 186||Elephantine; 1908||Dupont-Sommer, RSO 32 (1957): 403–409||B.3.c.33|
|68. Clermont-Ganneau 204||Elephantine||Dupont-Sommer, MAI 15 (1960): 68–71 (no photo)||B.3.c.33|
|69. Clermont-Ganneau 228; Gautier||Elephantine; 1908–1909||Lozachmeur, Semitica 21 (1971): 81–93||B.3.c.33|
|70. Clermont-Ganneau 277; Gautier||Elephantine; 1908–1909||Dupont-Sommer, RHR 128 (1944): 28–39||B.3.c.33|
|71. Columbia University Ostracon 97.4.18||Oxyrhynchus, 1897||unpublished|
|72. Elephantine Storeroom 1424||Elephantine; 1978||unpublished|
|73. Elephantine Storeroom 1661||Elephantine; 1979||Maraqten, MDAIK 43 (1987): 170–171|
|74. Elephantine Storeroom 2293||Elephantine; 1988||unpublished|
|75. Louvre E. 23566; Raymond Weill||Kom el-Ahmar; 1912||RÉJ 65 (1913): 16–23|
|76. Munich, Staatliche Sammlung Ägyptischer Kunst, 898; Mook acquisition||Elephantine; pre-1880||RÉS 1298 = ESE, vol. 3, 19–20, 21–22||B.3.c.24|
|77. Munich ÄS 899; Mook acquisition||Elephantine; pre-1880||RÉS 1299 = ESE, vol. 3, 19–21||B.3.c.25|
|78. Pontifical Biblical Institute, Jerusalem||Elephantine?||Lemaire and Lozachmeur, Semitica 27 (1977): 99–103||B.3.c.26|
|79. Pushkin Museum, Moscow I.i.b 1029; Vladimir Golénischeff||Elephantine; 1888–1889||CIS, vol. 2.1, 154||B.3.c.40|
|80. Pushkin I.i.b 1030; Golénischeff||Elephantine; 1888–1889||CIS, vol. 2.1, 155||B.3.c.39|
|81. Saqqara Antiquities Service Register, 1525||North Saqqara||Segal, North Saqqâra, No. VII|
|82. Spiegelberg Ostracon (lost)||Unknown||Lidzbarski, OLZ 30 (1927): 1043–1044 (no photo)||B.3.f.32|
|83. Strasbourg Aramaic 2||Edfu?; pre-1908||RÉS 1301 = ESE, vol. 3, 25–26||B.3.c.45|
|84. Strasbourg Aramaic 3||Edfu?; pre-1908||RÉS 1300 = ESE, vol. 3, 22–25||B.3.c.44|
|85. Strasbourg Aramaic 6||Edfu?; pre-1908||ESE, vol. 3, 298–301||B.3.c.46|
|86. Vienna Aramaic Ostracon 1; Hermann Junker||Edfu?; 1911||NESE, vol. 3, pp. 39–43||B.3.f.40|
|87. Vienna Aramaic Ostracon 2; Junker||Elephantine?; 1911||NESE, vol. 3, pp. 34–39||B.3.c.19|
|88. Vienna Aramaic Ostracon 3; Junker||Edfu?; 1911||NESE, vol. 3, pp. 43–47||B.3.f.40|
|89. Vienna Aramaic Ostracon 4; Junker||Edfu?; 1911||NESE, vol. 3, pp. 48–57||B.3.f.40|
|90. Vienna Aramaic Ostracon 5; Wessely estate||Edfu?; 1933||Porten and Yardeni, Maarav 7 (1991): 220–225|
Table 2a. Fifteen Lists (included in above)
|Museum/Library Number; Acquisition Source||Place and Date of Discovery/Acquisition||Initial Publications||Fitzmyer/Kaufman Aramaic Bibliography|
|1. Berlin P. 11373; Otto Rubensohn||Elephantine; 1906–1907||Sachau 79 (Pl. 66,3)|
|2. Berlin P. 11374; Rubensohn||Elephantine; 1906–1907||Sachau 79 (Pl. 66,5)||B.3.c.48 APO 79/5|
|3. Berlin P. 11375; Rubensohn||Elephantine; 1906–1907||Sachau 80 (Pl. 67,2)||B.3.c.48 APO 80/2|
|4. Berlin P. 11376; Rubensohn||Elephantine; 1906–1907||Sachau 84 (Pl. 71,5)||B.3.c.48 APO 84/5|
|5. Berlin P. 11381; Rubensohn||Elephantine; 1906–1907||Sachau 84 (Pl. 71,3)|
|6. Berlin P. 11453; Rubensohn||Elephantine; 1906–1907||Sachau 79 (Pl. 66,4)||B.3.c.48 APO 79/4|
|7. Berlin P. 17801||Elephantine?||unpublished|
|8. Berlin P. 17820||Elephantine?||unpublished|
|9. British Museum, London 45036; auction||Unknown; 1906||Porten and Yardeni, Maarav 7 (1991): 217–219|
|10. Egyptian Museum, Cairo JE 35468C||Elephantine; 1902||RÉS 1297 = ESE, vol. 3, 122f = Aimé-Giron 4||B.3.c.32|
|11. Cairo 64738; Pierre Lacau||Edfu; 1933||Aimé-Giron 113 = BIFAO 38 (1939): 38–40||B.3.f.33.6|
|12. Elephantine Storeroom 1424||Elephantine; 1978||unpublished|
|13. Elephantine Storeroom 2293||Elephantine; 1988||unpublished|
|14. Pushkin Museum, Moscow I.i.b 1029; Vladimir Golénischeff||Elephantine; 1888–1889||CIS, vol. 2.1, 154||B.3.c.40|
|15. Pushkin I.i.b 1030; Golénischeff||Elephantine; 1888–1889||CIS, vol. 2.1, 155||B.3.c.39|
Table 2b. Thirteen Accounts (included in above)
|1. Berlin P. 10678; Carl Schmidt||Edfu; 1905||Sachau 75 (Pl. 62,1) = RÉS 1794||B.3.f.33.1|
|2. Berlin P. 10852; Schmidt||Edfu||Sachau 75 (Pl. 62,2)||B.3.f.33.2|
|3. Berlin P. 10974; Schmidt||Edfu; 1906||Sachau 81 (Pl. 68,2)||B.3.f.33.4|
|4. Berlin P. 11363; Friedrich Zucker||Elephantine; 1908||Sachau 77 (Pl. 64,3)||B.3.c.48 APO 79/3|
|5. Egyptian Museum, Cairo 67040; French-Polish excavations||Edfu; 1937||Aimé-Giron 120 = BIFAO 38 (1939): 57–63||B.3.f.33.7|
|6. Columbia University Ostracon||Oxyrhynchus, 1897||unpublished|
|7. Louvre E. 23566; Raymond Weill||Kom el-Ahmar; 1912||RÉJ 65 (1913): 16–23|
|8. Strasbourg Aramaic 2||Edfu?; pre-1908||RÉS 1301 = ESE, vol. 3, 25–26||B.3.c.45|
|9. Strasbourg Aramaic 6||Edfu?; pre-1908||ESE, vol. 3, 298–301||B.3.c.46|
|10. Vienna Aramaic Ostracon 1; Hermann Junker||Edfu?; 1911||NESE, vol. 3, pp. 39–43||B.3.f.40|
|11. Vienna Aramaic Ostracon 3; Junker||Edfu?; 1911||NESE, vol. 3, pp. 43–47||B.3.f.40|
|12. Vienna Aramaic Ostracon 5; Wessely estate||Edfu?; 1933||Porten and Yardeni, Maarav 7 (1991): 220–225|
|13. Spiegelberg Ostracon (lost)||Unknown||Lidzbarski, OLZ 30 (1927): 1043–1044 (no photo)||B.3.f.32|
Table 3. Twenty-six Jar Inscriptions
|Museum/Library Number; Acquisition Source||Place and Date of Discovery/Acquisition||Initial Publications||Fitzmyer/Kaufman Aramaic Bibliography|
|1. Berlin P. 11359 (= P. 17804); Ludwig Borchardt||Abu Sir; 1907||Sachau 85 (Pl. 72, 1)|
|2. Berlin P. 11360 (= P. 17803 + 17805); Ludwig Borchardt||Abu Sir; 1907||Sachau 83 (Pl. 70, 5)|
|3. Berlin P. 11388; Otto Rubensohn||Elephantine; 1906–1908||Sachau 84 (Pl. 71, 9) = Krug. 34||B.3.c.49|
|4. Berlin P. 11412; Rubensohn||Elephantine; 1906–1908||Sachau 83 (Pl. 70,3) = Krug. 18||B.3.c.49|
|5. Berlin P. 11416; Rubensohn||Elephantine; 1906–1908||Sachau 86 (Pl. 73,14) = Krug. 65||B.3.c.49|
|6. Berlin P. 11422; Rubensohn||Elephantine; 1906–1908||Sachau 86 (Pl. 73,12)||B.3.c.49|
|7. Berlin P. 11430; Rubensohn||Elephantine; 1906–1908||Sachau 84 (Pl. 71,11) = Krug. 36||B.3.c.49|
|8. Berlin P. 11442; Rubensohn||Elephantine; 1906–1908||Sachau 82 (Pl. 69,6) = Krug. 6||B.3.c.49|
|9. Berlin P. 11444; Rubensohn||Elephantine; 1906–1908||Sachau 86 (Pl. 73,10) = Krug. 55||B.3.c.49|
|10. Berlin P. 11453 bis; Rubensohn||Elephantine; 1906–1908||Sachau 84 (Pl. 71,6) = Krug. 32||B.3.c.49|
|11. Berlin P. 11459; Rubensohn||Elephantine; 1906–1908||Sachau 85 (Pl. 72,17)||B.3.c.49|
|12. Ägyptisches Museum, Berlin P. 17807; Rubensohn||Elephantine; 1906–1908||unpublished|
|13. ÄM, Berlin 18429; Rubensohn||Elephantine; 1906–1908||Sachau 82 (Pl. 69,15), 87 (Pl. 74,1) = Krug. 15|
|14. ÄM, Berlin 18432; Rubensohn||Elephantine||Sachau 82 (Pl. 69,14), 87 (Pl. 74,2) = Krug. 14|
|15. Egyptian Museum, Cairo JE 43198; Rubensohn||Saqqara; 1911||Aimé-Giron 2||B.3.e.1|
|16. Cairo JE 43464G; Rubensohn||Elephantine; 1906–1908||Sachau 84 (Pl. 71,4) = Krug. 31||B.3.c.49|
|17. Cairo JE 43464H; Rubensohn||Elephantine; 1906–1908||Sachau 84 (Pl. 71,8) = Krug. 33||B.3.c.49|
|18 Cairo JE 43464JB; Rubensohn||Elephantine; 1906–1908||Sachau 85 (Pl. 72,19) = Krug. 53||B.3.c.49|
|19. Cairo JE 53040; Rubensohn||Edfu; 1929||Aimé-Giron 4bis||B.3.f.33.5|
|19a. Cairo JE 63378||South Saqqara||Aimé-Giron 121 = BIFAO 38 (1939): 63 (omitted; not Aramaic)|
|20. Elephantine Storeroom 1596||Elephantine; 1979||Maraqten, MDAIK 43 (1987): 170|
|21. Elephantine Storeroom 1597||Elephantine; 1979||Maraqten, MDAIK 43 (1987): 170|
|22. Saqqara Antiquities Service Register 725||North Saqqara||Segal, North Saqqâra, No. I|
|23. Saqqara Antiquities Service Register 2189||North Saqqara||Segal, North Saqqâra, No. XVI|
|24. Saqqara Antiquities Service Register 4371||North Saqqara||Segal, North Saqqâra, No. XXVI|
|25. Saqqara Antiquities Service Register 5557||North Saqqara||Segal, North Saqqâra, No. XXII|
|26. Saqqara Antiquities Service Register (unknown number)||North Saqqara||Bresciani, EVO 3 (1980): 16||B.3.f.9|
Table 4. Two Stone Plaques
|Museum/Library Number; Acquisition Source||Item Description||Place and Date of Discovery||Initial Publications||Fitzmyer/Kaufman|
|1. Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, Aramaic Ostracon 1||Limestone plaque dated 19 Aug. 403 BCE||Memphis; pre-1909||Cowley, in Petrie, Apries, pp. 12–13; Lemaire, Semitica 37 (1987): 52–55||B.3.e.11|
|2. Berlin P. 11385; Rubensohn||Opisthographic granite fragment with six names||Elephantine; 1906–1907||Sachau 79 (Pl. 66,2)||B.3.c.50|
Table 5. Six Wooden Pieces (not including Mummy Labels)
|1. Ägyptisches Museum, Berlin 11361; Friedrich Zucker||Opisthographic fragment with hole at top||Elephantine; 1907–1908||Sachau 83 (Pl. 70,15)|
|2. ÄM, Berlin 18468 (Sachau: incorrectly 18462); Otto Rubensohn||Mummy label with string; name and title||Elephantine; 1906–1907||Sachau 84 (Pl. 71,12)||B.3.c.53|
|3. ÄM, Berlin 19435; Zucker||Palette fragment?; personal name||Elephantine; 1907–1908||Sachau 81 (Pl. 68,3) = Aimé-Giron, BIFAO 34 (1934): 86–87||B.3.c.54|
|4. Brooklyn Museum 16.99; Charles E. Wilbour||Palette; obscure inscription||Elephantine; 1893||Aimé-Giron 119 = BIFAO 38 (1939): 47–57|
|5. Louvre AF 11016||Opisthographic palette; accounts||Provenance unknown||Lemaire, Semitica 37 (1987): 47–55||B.3.f.35|
|6. Medinet Maadi (Narmuti)||Handled stamp; name + verb||Medinet Maadi (Narmuti); 1966||Bresciani, Medinet Maadi, 30–32|
Table 6. Six Seals and Bullae (not including Wooden Pieces)
|1. Aimé-Giron; personally acquired||Eight-sided cone||Provenance unknown||Aimé-Giron 116 = BIFAO 38 (1939): 43–45|
|2. Aimé-Giron; personally acquired||Light, striped, ellipsoidal agate cylinder||Provenance unknown; 1934||Aimé-Giron 117 = BIFAO 38 (1939): 45–47||B.7.1.34|
|3. Bodleian Library, Oxford Sigill. aram. VIII., lap. insc. impr.||Bulla||Provenance unknown||Driver, Aramaic Documents, 4, n. 1||B.7.1.66|
|4. Egyptian Museum, Cairo JE 25225||Quartz scaraboid seal||Saqqara?; 1882||CIS, vol. 2.1, 124 = Herr 1||B.7.1.157|
|5. Israel Museum, Jerusalem 71.46.91||Black agate scaraboid seal||Provenance unknown; pre-1954||Reifenberg, IEJ 4 (1954): 139|
|6. Pushkin Museum, Moscow, Seal N I, 2B 255; Vladimir Golénischeff||Chalcedony scaraboid seal||Provenance unknown; pre-1868||CIS, vol. 2.1, 140 = Herr 6||B.7.1.64|
Table 7. Three Statuettes
|Museum/Library Number; Acquisition Source||Item Description||Place and Date of Discovery||Initial Publications||Fitzmyer/Kaufman|
|1. Egyptian Museum, Cairo JE 31919||Red granite headless statue with name||Provenance unknown; 1897||RÉS 965 = ESE, vol. 3, 117–18|
|2. Cairo JE 35562; Archibald Henry Sayce||Sandstone statue with fragmentary name||Qubbet el-Hawa; 1889||Maspero, ASAE 3 (1902): 96; Daressy, ASAE 17 (1917): 81–85; Ronzevalle, ASAE 17 (1917): 270–271|
|3. Pisa; personally acquired||Clay statuette with lament||Provenance unknown||Bresciani, Hommages Dupont-Sommer, pp. 5–8||B.3.f.31 “possibly a forgery”|
Table 8. Five Libation Bowls
|1. Brooklyn Museum 54.50.32; Charles Edwin Wilbour Fund||Silver bowl with dedication||Tell el-Maskhuta pre-1956||Rabinowitz, JNES 15 (1956): 4–5 = Grelot 79||B.3.f.12|
|2. Brooklyn Museum 54.50.34; Wilbour Fund||Silver bowl with dedication||Tell el-Maskhuta pre-1956||Rabinowitz, JNES 15 (1956): 5–9 = Grelot 78 = Gibson 25||B.3.f.12|
|3. Brooklyn Museum 54.50.36; Wilbour Fund||Silver bowl with dedication||Tell el-Maskhuta pre-1956||Rabinowitz, JNES 15 (1956): 2–4||B.3.f.12|
|4. Brooklyn Museum 57.121; Wilbour Fund||Silver bowl with dedication||Tell el-Maskhuta pre-1956||Rabinowitz, JNES 18 (1959): 154–156; Honeyman, JNES 19 (1960): 40–41||B.3.f.12|
|5. Stockholm, Sweden; currently in Carl Kempe collection; Robert Erskine||Silver bowl with name||Provenance unknown; c. 1956||Bivar, BSOAS 24 (1961): 189–199; Hinz, 237||B.3.f.38|
Table 9. Nine Mummy Labels
|1. Ägyptisches Museum, Berlin 18464; Otto Rubensohn||Wooden||Elephantine; 1906–1907||Sachau 84 (Pl. 71,13)||B.3.c.52|
|2. Egyptian Museum, Cairo JE 54157; Gustave Jéquier||Ceramic; inscribed on convex||South Saqqara; 1929–1930||Aimé-Giron 109||B.3.e.27|
|3. Cairo JE 54158; Jéquier||Ceramic||South Saqqara; 1929–1930||Aimé-Giron 111b (see Aimé-Giron 111a)||B.3.e.27|
|4. Cairo JE 54159; Jéquier||Ceramic; inscribed on convex||South Saqqara; 1929–1930||Aimé-Giron 105||B.3.e.27|
|5. Cairo JE 54160; Jéquier||Ceramic||South Saqqara; 1929–1930||Aimé-Giron 112b (see Aimé-Giron 112a)||B.3.e.27|
|6. Cairo JE 54161; Jéquier||Ceramic||South Saqqara; 1929–1930||Aimé-Giron 110b (see Aimé-Giron 110a)||B.3.e.27|
|7. Cairo JE 55033; Jéquier||Limestone||South Saqqara; 1929–1930||Aimé-Giron 102 (see Aimé-Giron 96, 108)||B.3.e.27|
|8. Lost; Jéquier||Stone||South Saqqara; 1930||Aimé-Giron 118 = BIFAO 38 (1939): 46||B.3.3.20|
|9. Cairo JE 63379||Wooden||South Saqqara||unpublished|
Table 10. Twenty-two Inscribed Sarcophagi
|Museum/Library Number; Acquisition Source||Item Description||Place and Date of Discovery||Initial Publications||Fitzmyer/Kaufman|
|1. Aswan Museum 2605; El-Hetta||Painted sandstone anthropoid sarcophagus; at base, engraved inscription||Aswan; 1963||Kornfeld, WZKM 61 (1967): 9–10, 12–13||B.3.f.4|
|2. Aswan Museum 2606; El-Hetta||Painted sandstone anthropoid sarcophagus; at base, engraved inscription||Aswan; 1963||Kornfeld, WZKM 61 (1967): 10–11, 13||B.3.f.4|
|3. Aswan Museum 2607; El-Hetta||Painted sandstone female anthropoid sarcophagus; at base, engraved inscription||Aswan; 1963||Kornfeld, WZKM 61 (1967): 11–14||B.3.f.4|
|4. Egyptian Museum, Cairo JE 55213; Gustave Jéquier||Ceramic coffin lid||South Saqqara; 1929–1930||Aimé-Giron 101||B.3.e.27|
|5. Cairo JE 55214a, b; Jéquier||Ceramic coffin lid; left exterior||South Saqqara; 1928–1929||Aimé-Giron 104a, c||B.3.e.27|
|6. Cairo JE 55215a, b; Jéquier||Ceramic coffin lid; left exterior||South Saqqara; 1929–1930||Aimé-Giron 103a, c||B.3.e.27|
|7. Cairo JE 55217; Jéquier (same vessel as JE 55224)||Ceramic coffin lid||South Saqqara; 1929–1930||Aimé-Giron 97a||B.3.e.27|
|8. Cairo JE 55218; Jéquier||Ceramic coffin left exterior||South Saqqara; 1928–1929||Aimé-Giron 99 = Grelot 76||B.3.e.27|
|9. Cairo JE 55219; Jéquier||Ceramic coffin left exterior||South Saqqara; 1929–1930||Aimé-Giron 111a (see Aimé-Giron 111b)||B.3.e.27|
|10. Cairo JE 55220; Jéquier||Ceramic coffin left exterior||South Saqqara; 1929–1930||Aimé-Giron 110a (see Aimé-Giron 110b)||B.3.e.27|
|11. Cairo JE 55221; Jéquier (same vessel as JE 55222)||Ceramic coffin right exterior||South Saqqara; 1929–1930||Aimé-Giron 100b||B.3.e.27|
|12. Cairo JE 55222; Jéquier (same vessel as JE 55221)||Ceramic coffin lid||South Saqqara; 1929–1930||Aimé-Giron 100a||B.3.e.27|
|13. Cairo JE 55223; Jéquier||Ceramic coffin right interior||South Saqqara; 1929–1930||Aimé-Giron 112a (see Aimé-Giron 112b)||B.3.e.27|
|14. Cairo JE 55224; Jéquier (same vessel as JE 55217)||Ceramic coffin left exterior||South Saqqara; 1929–1930||Aimé-Giron 97b||B.3.e.27|
|15. Cairo JE 55225; Jéquier||Ceramic coffin exterior||South Saqqara; 1929–1930||Aimé-Giron 106||B.3.e.27|
|16. Cairo JE 55226; Jéquier (same vessel as JE 55227)||Foot of ceramic coffin||South Saqqara; 1929–1930||Aimé-Giron 96c||B.3.e.27|
|17. Cairo JE 55227; Jéquier (same vessel as JE 55226)||Ceramic coffin lid||South Saqqara; 1929–1930||Aimé-Giron 96a, b (see Aimé-Giron 102)||B.3.e.27|
|18. Cairo JE 55228; Jéquier||Ceramic coffin left exterior||South Saqqara; 1929–1930||Aimé-Giron 98||B.3.e.27|
|19. Cairo JE 55245; Jéquier||Ceramic coffin lid||South Saqqara; 1928–1929||Aimé-Giron 95||B.3.e.27|
|20. Cairo JE 55247; Jéquier||Foot of ceramic coffin||South Saqqara; 1928–1929||Aimé-Giron 108 (see Aimé-Giron 102)||B.3.e.27|
|21. Cairo JE 63380; Jéquier||Wooden fragment||South Saqqara; 1929–1930||Aimé-Giron 115 = BIFAO 38 (1939): 43||B.3.3.21|
|22. Disintegrated; Jéquier||Wooden lid||South Saqqara; 1929–1930||Aimé-Giron 107|
Table 11. Fourteen Tombstones and One Memorial Stela
|1. Ägyptisches Museum, Berlin 18502||Limestone plaque with name||Abu Sir; 1907||Sachau 87 (pl. 74,4)||B.3.c.51|
|2. Greco-Roman Museum, Alexandria 5904; Evaristo Breccia||Limestone; painted inscription||El-Ibrahimiya (Alexandria); 1906||RÉS 798||B.3.f.39.3|
|3. Alexandria 18361; Breccia||Limestone; painted inscription||El-Ibrahimiya (Alexandria); 1906||RÉS 797||B.3.f.39.1|
|4. Alexandria, number not certain; Breccia||Tombstone; painted inscription||El-Ibrahimiya (Alexandria); 1906||RÉS 799|
|5. Edfu Storeroom||Tombstone; incised inscription||Edfu||Kornfeld, AÖAW 110 (1973): 123–129; Kornfeld, Kairos 18 (1976): 58||B.3.f.41|
|6. Edfu Storeroom||Reused offering table; incised inscription||Edfu||Kornfeld, AÖAW 110 (1973): 129–130||B.3.f.41|
|7. Edfu Storeroom||Tombstone; incised inscription||Edfu||Kornfeld, AÖAW 110 (1973): 131; NESE, vol. 3, pp. 64–65||B.3.f.41|
|8. Edfu Storeroom||Tombstone; incised inscription||Edfu||Kornfeld, AÖAW 110 (1973): 131–132||B.3.f.41|
|9. Edfu Storeroom||Tombstone; incised inscription||Edfu||Kornfeld, AÖAW 110 (1973): 132–133||B.3.f.41|
|10. Edfu Storeroom||Tombstone; incised inscription||Edfu||Kornfeld, AÖAW 110 (1973): 133; Lipiński, OLP 6–7 (1975–1976): 382ff; NESE, vol. 3, pp. 63–64||B.3.f.41|
|11. Edfu Storeroom||Tombstone; incised inscription||Edfu||Kornfeld, AÖAW 110 (1973): 134||B.3.f.41|
|12. Edfu Storeroom||Tombstone; incised inscription||Edfu||Kornfeld, AÖAW 110 (1973): 134–135||B.3.f.41|
|13. Edfu Storeroom||Tombstone; incised inscription||Edfu||Kornfeld, AÖAW 110 (1973): 135; AÖAW 111 (1974): 376–378||B.3.f.41|
|14. Luxor Museum Storeroom (uncollated); Taher||Sandstone; incised inscription||Hagir Esna; 1971||Kornfeld, AÖAW 111 (1974): 374–376|
|15. Paris; personally acquired||Memorial stela?||Provenance unknown||Aimé-Giron 110bis = Dupont-Sommer, Syria 33 (1956): 79–87 = Grelot 77||B.3.e.2|
Table 12. Five Funerary Stelae, One Offering Table, One Dedication
|Museum/Library Number; Acquisition Source||Item Description||Place and Date of Discovery||Initial Publications||Fitzmyer/Kaufman|
|1. Berlin (Gipsformerei 939); Travers; destroyed in World War II||Stela; 1 register + hieroglyphic inscription + 2 registers + 4-line Aramaic inscription||Saqqara; pre-1877||CIS, vol. 2.1, 122 = KAI 267 = Grelot 85 = Gibson 23||B.3.3.22|
|2. Brussels (Musées Royaux d'Art et d'Histoire E.4716); Jean Capart and Franz Cumont||Stela||Provenance unknown; 1907||RÉS 1788; Lipiński, CdÉ 50 (1975): 93–104||B.3.e.29|
|3. Carpentras; Rigord||Stela; 2 registers + 4-line inscription||Provenance unknown; 1704||CIS, vol. 2.1, 141 = KAI 269 = Grelot 86 = Gibson 24||B.3.f.18|
|4. Saqqara; Cecil M. Firth||Fragmentary stela; 1-line inscription||Saqqara; 1926?||Aimé-Giron 114 = BIFAO 38 (1939): 40–43|
|5. Vatican XI.32.21; Charles Lenormant||Stela; register + 1-line inscription + register||Provenance unknown; 1860||CIS, vol. 2.1, 142 = KAI 272||B.3.f.28|
|6. Louvre AO 4824; F. Auguste Mariette||Offering table; 4-line inscription||Serapeum, Memphis; 1851||CIS, vol. 2.1, 123 - Grelot 84 = KAI 268||B.3.e.8|
|7. Cairo JE 36448||Sandstone stela 6-line inscription||Aswan; pre-1903||RÉS 438, 1806 = Grelot 75||B.3.f.3|
Table 13. Fifty-one Graffiti (arranged from north to south)
|1. Giza; Imile Baraize; Egyptian Museum, Cairo, Temporary Register 29–12–28–1||1-line inscription||Sphinx column drum, 1928||Aimé-Giron 90||B.3.f.19|
|2. Ma῾sarah; Archibald Henry Sayce||Personal name, above demotic cartouche of Achoris||Quarry south of Tura, 1886||RÉS 1819||B.3.f.37|
|3–5. Dahshur; Jacques J. M. de Morgan||3 graffiti: 1 fragment, 2 prenomina||Senwosret III pyramid||RÉS 1818; Aimé-Giron, p. 97, n. 1||B.3.f.36|
|6. Wadi Sheikh Sheikhun; Gaston Maspero and Eugène Grébaut||2-line proskynema||Large boulder near wadi entrance; 1886||CIS, vol. 2.1, 134 = RÉS 1817; RAO 6 (1905): 267–270||B.3.f.29|
|7–16. Abydos||10 proskynemata to Osiris||Seti I temple; 1868–1915||ESE, vol. 3, 103, No. Ag = RÉS 1368; ESE, vol. 3, 107, No. Al = RÉS 1364; ESE, vol. 3, 108, No. Ap = RÉS 608; ESE, vol. 3, 108, No. Aq = RÉS 1369; ESE, vol. 3, 109, No. As = RÉS 1370; ESE, vol. 3, 112, No. Bb = RÉS 1366 = Grelot 80; ESE, vol. 3, 113, No. Bf = RÉS 1373; Kornfeld, AÖAW 115 (1978): 199; ESE, vol. 3, 113, No. Bi = RÉS 1375; ESE, vol. 3, 114, No. Bk = RÉS 1376; ESE, vol. 3, 114, No. Bl = RÉS 1377||B.3.f.23|
|17–18. Abydos||Two 4-line proskynemata (Anatolians?) (perhaps three distinct inscriptions)||Seti I temple; 1868–1915||ESE, vol. 3, 103, No. Aha = RÉS 1367 = Grelot 81; ESE, vol. 3, 103, No. Ahb = RÉS 1372 = Grelot 82; Aime-Giron, p. 79; Dupont-Sommer, Annuaire (1966–1967), 119||B.3.f.23|
|19–24. Abydos; Ada Yardeni||4 personal names; 2 prenomina||Seti I temple; 1868–1915, 1993||ESE, vol. 3, 98, No. J = RÉS 1371; ESE, vol. 3, 107, No. Am = RÉS 1363; Kornfeld, AÖAW 115 (1978): 198; ESE, vol. 3, 109, No. Ar = RÉS 1370; ESE, vol. 3, 113, No. Bh = RÉS 1374; (unlocated; perhaps illusory) CIS, vol. 2.1, 133, contra Kornfeld, AÖAW 115 (1978): 202; 1 unpublished||B.3.f.23|
|25. Wadi Hammamat; J.-C. Goyon||Abecedary||Black granite; 1946||Dupont-Sommer, RA 41 (1947): 105–110||B.3.f.10|
|26–32. Wadi Abu Qwei; Arthur Weigall, Luisa Bongrani-Fanfoni||5 proskynemata; 2 personal names||Wadi inside Wadi Hammamat; 1907, 1989||Weigall, Travels in the Upper Egyptian Deserts, Pl. 7.15; Fanfoni-Israel, Transeuphraténe 8 (1994): 81–93|
|33–36. Gebel Abu-Gurob; Sayce||4 personal names||Between Heshan (= Hosh?) and Wadi el-Shatt er-Rigal; 1907||Sayce, PSBA 30 (1908): 28–29 (readings uncertain)|
|37–41. Wadi el-Shatt er-Rigal; Petrie (2); Sayce (4)||4 proskynemata||Near large rock at northern entrance of wadi; 1887, c. 1890||CIS, vol. 2.1, 135, 136 = RÉS 960, 961, 962, 962 = Sayce, RT 17 (1895): 164, Nos. 5–6|
|42. Aswan; Sayce||3 incisions of same word||Sandstone quarry||Sayce, PSBA 28 (1906): 174–75|
|43–48. Wadi el-Hudi, Ibrahim Effendi ῾Abd el-῾Al (Cairo JE 71901)||5 proskynemata; 1 personal name||Stela on hill at amethyst quarries; 1939||Aimé-Giron 124 = ASAE 39 (1939): 351–363||B.3.f.20|
|49–50. Tomas; Weigall||2 personal names||Sandstone; 1906–1907||Weigall, Report on the Antiquities of Lower Nubia, 113 + Pl. 64.6; Aimé-Giron 92–93||B.3.f.1.2–3|
|51. Unknown; Henry Salt; bought by W.T. Ready, 20 June 1899||Prenomen incised||Royal dedicatory stela; provenance unknown; pre-1836||CIS, vol. 2.1, 143 = RÉS 490||B.3.f.17|
Tables 14–15. Chronological List of the Discovery of Ostraca and Jar Inscriptions
Table 14. Ostraca. Thirty-four separate finds or acquisitions between 1875 and 1988
|1.||1875 (1889)||Fragmentary letter||Elephantine||Greville Chester||British Museum, London||CIS, vol. 2.1, 138||B.3.c.28|
|2.||1876 (1889)||Fragmentary letter||Elephantine||Chester||London||CIS, vol. 2.1, 139||B.3.c.48 APE 95|
|3.||pre-1880 (1915)||2 fragmentary letters||Elephantine||Friedrich Mook||Staatliche Sammlung Ägyptische Kunst, Munich||Mark Lidzbarski||B.3.c.24–25|
|4.||1886 (1887)||Dream letter||Elephantine||Adolf Erman||Staatliche Museen, Berlin||Julius Euting||B.3.c.47|
|5.||1888–1889 (1889)||2 lists||Elephantine||Vladimir S. Golénischeff||Pushkin Museum, Moscow||CIS, vol. 2.1, 154–155||B.3.c.39–40|
|6.||1897 (1906)||Fragmentary letter||Elephantine||Ludwig Borchardt||Berlin||Archibald Henry Sayce, Arthur Ernest Cowley||B.3.c.42/48 APO 77/1|
|8.||1900–1901 (1903)||4 letters||Elephantine||Sayce||Bodleian Library, Oxford (on permanent loan to the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford)||Cowley||B.3.c.29, 36–37, 48 APE 93|
|9.||1902 (1909, 1915)||2 letters (barley, marzeah), 1 fragmentary list||Elephantine||Egyptian Museum, Cairo||Sayce, Lidzbarski||B.3.c.33–32|
|10.||1905 (1911)||2 letters||Elephantine||Otto Rubensohn||Berlin||Eduard Sachau||B.3.c.21,23|
|11.||1905–1906 (1911)||1 fragmentary letter; 3 accounts||Edfu||Carl Schmidt||Berlin||Sachau||B3.f.33.1–4|
|12.||1906 (1969)||1 fragmentary letter||Elephantine?||London||Judah Benzion Segal||B3.c.35|
|13.||1906 (1991)||1 letter; 1 list||Elephantine?||Rustafjaell sale at Sotheby's auction||London||Bezalel Porten, Ada Yardeni|
|14.||1906–1908 (1911)||23 ostraca||Elephantine||Rubensohn, Friedrich Zucker||Berlin; Cairo||Sachau||B3.c.22,41, 43, 48|
|15.||Unknown||1 list; 6 letters||Elephantine||Unknown||Berlin||Unpublished|
|16.||1907–1909 (1944, 1945, 1948, 1949, 1957, 1963, 1971, 1989)||256? ostraca||Elephantine||Charles Clermont-Ganneau, Jean Clédat, Henri Gauthier||Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, Paris||André Dupont-Sommer, Hélène Lozachmeur||B.3.c.33|
|17.||pre-1908 (1915)||2 accounts; 1 letter||Edfu?||Bibliothèque Nationale et Universitaire, Strasbourg||Lidzbarski||B.3.c.44–46|
|18.||pre-1911 (1911)||Passover letter||Elephantine||Sayce||Bodleian Library, Oxford (on permanent loan to the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford)||Sayce||B.3.c.20|
|19.||1911 (1978)||2 accounts; 2 letters||3 Edfu?; 1 Elephantine||Hermann Junker||Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Vienna||Rainer Degen||B.3.c.19f.40|
|20.||1912 (1913)||Account||Kom el-Ahmar||Raymond Weil||Louvre||Raymond Weill|
|21.||1914||Fragmentary letter||Unknown||Sayce||Bodleian Library, Oxford (on permanent loan to the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford)||Unpublished|
|22.||1924 (1926)||Fragmentary letter||Elephantine||Cairo||Noel Aimé-Giron||B.3.c.27|
|23.||1925 (1926)||Tunic letter||Elephantine||Cairo||Aimé-Giron||B.3.c.28|
|24.||pre-1926 (1926)||Fragmentary letter||Elephantine||Cairo||Aimé-Giron||B.c.3.48. Aimé-Giron|
|25.||pre-1927||Tax receipt||Edfu?||Wilhelm Spiegelberg||Lost||Lidzbarski||B.3.f.32|
|26.||pre-1929 (1929)||Letter to Kaviliah||Elephantine||Herbert Thompson||Cambridge University Library||Cowley||B.3.c.34|
|27.||1933 (1939)||Fragmentary account||Edfu||Pierre Lacau||Cairo||Aimé-Giron||B.3.f.33.6|
|28.||1933 (1991)||Account||Edfu?||Carl Wessely estate||Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Vienna||Porten and Yardeni|
|29.||1937 (1939)||Account||Edfu||French-Polish excavations||Cairo||Aimé-Giron||B.3.f.33.7|
|30.||1966–1973||Abecedary||North Saqqara||Egypt Exploration Society||Cairo?||Judah Benzion Segal||B.3.e.25|
|31.||pre-1977 (1977)||Abecedary||Elephantine?||Pontifical Biblical Institute, Jerusalem||André Lemaire, Hélène Lozachmeur||B.3.c.26|
|32.||1978||List||Elephantine||German Archaeological Institute||Elephantine Storeroom, Aswan||unpublished|
|33.||1979||Letter||Elephantine||German Archaeological Institute||Elephantine Storeroom, Aswan||Mohammed Maraqten|
|34.||1988||List||Elephantine||German Archaeological Institute||Elephantine Storeroom, Aswan||unpublished|
Table 15. Jar Inscriptions. Nine separate finds or acquisitions between 1906 and 1979
|1.||1906–1908 (1911)||14 jar Inscriptions||Elephantine||Otto Rubensohn||Staatliche Museen, Berlin; Egyptian Museum, Cairo||Eduard Sachau||B.3.c.49|
|2.||Unknown||1 jar inscription||Elephantine||Unknown||Berlin||Unpublished|
|3.||1907 (1911)||2 jar inscriptions||Abu Sir (Memphis)||Ludwig Borchardt||Berlin||Sachau|
|4.||1911 (1931)||1 jar inscription||Saqqara||Unknown||Cairo||Noel Aimé-Giron||B.3.e.1|
|4a.||Unknown (1939)||Potter's mark||South Saqqara||Cecil Mallaby Firth||Cairo||Aimé-Giron||Omitted (not Aramaic)|
|5.||1978–1979||Potter's mark||Saqqara||Edda Bresciani||Bresciani||B.3.f.9|
|6.||1929 (1931)||1 jar inscription||Edfu||Pierre Lacau||Cairo||Aimé-Giron||B.3.f.33.5|
|7.||1966–1973||2 jar inscriptions; 2 potter's marks||North Saqqara||Egypt Exploration Society||Saqqara Storeroom||Judah Benzion Segal||B.3.e.25|
|8.||pre-1987||2 jar inscriptions||Elephantine||German Archaeological Institute||Elephantine Storeroom||Mohammed Maraqten|
|9.||1979||2 jar inscriptions||Elephantine||German Archaeological Institute||Elephantine Storeroom||Maraqten|
- Aimé-Giron, Noël. Textes araméens d'Égypte. Cairo, 1931. Publication of 112 items (papyri, sarcophagi, graffiti, mummy labels) discovered by French expeditions, mostly at Saqqara. Contains a valuable introduction and topical treatments, although readings must be checked against later publications.
- Aimé-Giron, Noël. “Adversaria semitica.” Bulletin de l'Institut Français d'Archéologie Orientale 38 (1939): 1–63. Corrigenda and continuation of Textes (1931), from nos. 113 to 121 (new material from Saqqara and Edfu).
- Aimé-Giron, Noël. “Adversaria semitica.” Annales du Service des Antiquités de l'Égypte 39 (1939): 339–363. Continuation of “Adversaria semitica” from numbers 122 to 124 (unique graffiti from Wadi el-Hudi).
- Bresciani, Edda. Missione di scavo a Medinet Madi (Fayum-Egitto). Milan, 1968.
- Bresciani, Edda. “Una statuina fittile con inscrizione aramaica dell'-Egitto.” In Hommages à André Dupont-Sommer, pp. 5–8. Paris, 1971.
- Corpus inscriptionum semiticarum. Part 2.1. Paris, 1888–1893. Publication of all known Aramaic texts to date (funerary stelae, graffiti, ostraca, papyri, seals), with valuable plates and a commentary in Latin.
- Cowley, Arthur E. Aramaic Papyri of the Fifth Century B.C. Oxford, 1923. The most convenient collection of all papyri published to that date. Readings must be checked against later publications.
- Driver, Godfrey R. Aramaic Documents of the Fifth Century B.C. Oxford, 1954. Superb publication of parchment letters sent from outside Egypt to satrapal officials, with excellent full-size plates. Abridged and revised (without plates) In 1957 and 1965.
- Dupont-Sommer, André. “Un ostracon araméen inédit d'Éléphantine (Collection Clermont-Ganneau no. 44).” In Hebrew and Semitic Studies Presented to G. R. Driver, edited by D. Winton Thomas and W. D. McHardy, pp. 53–58. Oxford, 1963.
- Ebers, Georg. The Hellenic Portraits from the Fayum. New York, 1893.
- Fitzmyer, Joseph A., and Stephen A. Kaufman. An Aramaic Bibliography, part 1, Old, Official, and Biblical Aramaic. Baltimore and London, 1992. Complete listing of all texts and extensive bibliography for each. Classification according to TAD sigla where available; otherwise classification is cumbersome.
- Greenfield, Jonas C., and Bezalel Porten. The Bisitun Inscription of Darius the Great: Aramaic Version. Corpus Inscriptionum Iranicarum, part 1, vol. 5: Texts 1. London, 1982. New edition with restored text, with a comparison to the Akkadian version and papyrological treatment. Minor revisions in TAD C2.1.
- Grelot, Pierre. Documents araméens d'Égypte. Paris, 1972. French annotated translation of 109 texts, including papyri, ostraca, and other small inscriptions, plus an elaborate onomastic treatise.
- Hinz, Walther. Altiranisches Sprachgut der Nebenüberlieferungen. Wiesbaden, 1975.
- Kraeling, Emil G. Brooklyn Museum Aramaic Papyri: New Documents of the Fifth Century B.C. from the Jewish Colony in Elephantine. New Haven, 1953. Publication of the Anani(ah) family archive discovered In 1893 by Charles Edwin Wilbour, with a comprehensive introduction. Readings must be checked against later publications.
- Naveh, Joseph. “The Development of the Aramaic Script.” Proceedings of the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities 5 (1970): 21–43. Basic work for palaeographical dating of all Aramaic texts.
- Parlasca, Klaus. Mumienporträts und verwandte Denkmäler. Wiesbaden, 1966.
- Petrie, W. M. Flinders. The Palace of Apries (Memphis II). London, 1909.
- Porten, Bezalel. Archives from Elephantine: The Life of an Ancient Jewish Military Colony. Berkeley, 1968. The most comprehensive synthesis of the material. A thoroughly revised edition (Brill) is planned for 1998. The treatment of legal topics is updated in joint studies by Porten and Szubin.
- Porten, Bezalel, and H. Z. Szubin. “‘Abandoned Property’ in Elephantine: A New Interpretation of Kraeling 3.” Journal of Near Eastern Studies 41 (1982): 123–131.
- Porten, Bezalel, and H. Z. Szubin. “Exchange of Inherited Property at Elephantine (Cowley 1).” Journal of the American Oriental Society 102 (1982): 651–654.
- Porten, Bezalel, and H. Z. Szubin. “Litigation Concerning Abandoned Property at Elephantine (Kraeling 1).” Journal of Near Eastern Studies 42 (1983): 279–284.
- Porten, Bezalel. “The Jews in Egypt.” In The Cambridge History of Judaism, vol. 1, edited by W. D. Davies and Louis Finkelstein, pp. 372–400. Cambridge, 1984. Update of Porten (1968), with basic bibliography.
- Porten, Bezalel, and H. Z. Szubin. “Hereditary Leases in Aramaic Letters.” Bibliotheca Orientalis 42 (1985): 283–288.
- Porten, Bezalel, and Ada Yardeni. Textbook of Ancient Aramaic Documents from Ancient Egypt (TAD A, B, C). 3 vols. Jerusalem, 1986–1993. The most up-to-date collection of Egyptian Aramaic papyri and parchments, including letters (TAD A), contracts (TAD B), literature, accounts, and lists (TAD C), with detailed excurses. Each text is newly collated at the source and reproduced in hand-copy. TAD D is in preparation and will include papyrus and parchment fragments and inscriptions on material other than papyrus.
- Porten, Bezalel, and H. Z. Szubin. “A Dowry Addendum (Kraeling 10).” Journal of the American Oriental Society 107 (1987): 231–238.
- Porten, Bezalel, and H. Z. Szubin. “Litigants in the Elephantine Contracts: The Development of Legal Terminology.” Maarav 4 (1987): 45–67.
- Porten, Bezalel, and H. Z. Szubin. “Royal Grants in Egypt: A New Interpretation of Driver 2.” Journal of Near Eastern Studies 46 (1987): 39–48.
- Porten, Bezalel, and H. Z. Szubin. “An Aramaic Deed of Bequest (Kraeling 9).” In Community and Culture, edited by Nahum M. Waldman, pp. 179–192. Philadelphia, 1987.
- Porten, Bezalel. “The Calendar of Aramaic Texts from Achaemenid and Ptolemaic Egypt.” In Irano-Judaica, vol. 2, Studies Relating to Jewish Contacts with Persian Culture throughout the Ages, edited by Shaul Shaked and Amnon Netzer, pp. 13–32. Jerusalem, 1990. Detailed examination of every date, with discussion of dating patterns in contracts, letters, and accounts, and synchronous Babylonian-Egyptian dates.
- Porten, Bezalel. “Elephantine Papyri.” In The Anchor Bible Dictionary, vol. 2, pp. 445–455. New York, 1992. Detailed survey of discovery and contents of all Elephantine papyri, with an elaborate bibliography.
- Répertoire d'épigraphie sémitique. Paris, 1901–1917. Most convenient single collection of nonpapyrological epigraphic material for those years.
- Sachau, Eduard. Aramäische Papyrus und Ostraka aus einer jüdischen Militärkolonie zu Elephantine. Leipzig, 1911. Publication of seventy-five papyrus items and numerous inscriptions on shards, jars, wood, stone, and leather, mostly from the 1906–1908 Elephantine excavations by Rubensohn and Zucker. Indispensable plates.
- Sayce, A. H., and Arthur E. Cowley. Aramaic Papyri Discovered at Assuan. London, 1906. Mibtahiah archive plus several ostraca. Contains full-size plates and an excellent bibliography of all Aramaic texts to date by Seymour de Ricci. Readings must be checked against later publications.
- Segal, Judah B. Aramaic Texts from North Saqqâra. London, 1983. Publication of 202 papyrus items and 26 Aramaic and Phoenician ostraca found by Walter Emery (1966–1967) and Geoffrey Martin (1971–1973). Elaborate apparatus but disappointing plates. Readings must be checked against reviews and later publications. New collation essential.
- Szubin, H. Z., and Bezalel Porten. “‘Ancestral Estates’ in Aramaic Contracts: The Legal Significance of the Term mhḥsn.” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland (1982): 3–9.
- Szubin, H. Z., and Bezalel Porten. “Testamentary Succession at Elephantine.” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, no. 252 (1983): 35–46.
- Szubin, H. Z., and Bezalel Porten. “A Life Estate of Usufruct: A New Interpretation of Kraeling 6.” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, no. 269 (1988): 29–45.
- Szubin, H. Z., and Bezalel Porten. “An Aramaic Joint Venture Agreement: A New Interpretation of the Bauer-Meissner Papyrus.” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, no. 288 (1992): 67–84.
- Weigall, Arthur E. P. A Report on the Antiquities of Lower Nubia. Oxford, 1907.
- Weigall, Arthur E. P. Travels in the Upper Egyptian Deserts. London, 1909.