[The tables referred to throughout this entry appear as an appendix in volume 5.] Aramaic texts from the twenty-sixth dynasty through the Ptolemaic period were written (or found) in Egypt on papyrus, parchment, wood, ostraca, stone out croppings, sarcophagi, funerary stelae, altars, jars, bowls, coins, statuettes, seals, and bullae. Major centers of discovery were Memphis-Saqqara and Elephantine from the Persian period and Edfu from the Ptolemaic period, but graffiti have turned up all along the Nile from northern Giza to Nubian Tumas. The particulars of discovery and publication of papyri, ostraca, and jar inscriptions are listed chronologically in tabular form according to category of text (tables 1, 14–15). Other texts, including ostraca and jar inscriptions, are arranged typologically and listed alphabetically according to museum or library (tables 2–13).

Papyri and Parchments.

These documents fall into six categories: (1) thirty-six letters on papyrus and fourteen on parchment, plus numerous fragments. Twenty-eight papyri belong to Elephantine (TAD [= Porten and Yardeni, 1986–1993] A3.1–10; 4.1–10; 5.2, 5; 6.1–2) or Syene (Aswan; TAD A2.1–4) and seven elsewhere—el-Hibeh (TAD A3.11), Luxor (TAD A2.5–7), Saqqara (TAD A1.1; 5.1), and an unknown locality (TAD A5.3, 4). A unique letter is from Adon, king of Ekron (c. 604–603 BCE), seeking aid from the pharaoh against the Babylonian onslaught. (2) forty-three contracts from Elephantine Island, mostly intact (495–400); one from el-Hibeh (515 [TAD B1.1]) and fragmentary court protocols from Saqqara (TAD B8.1–12). (3) two or three literary texts—The Words of Aḥiqar (TAD C1.1) and one or two fragmentary reworked Egyptian tales (TAD C1.2). (4) one historical text—a fragmentary version of Darius' Bisitun inscription (TAD C2.1). (5) thirty accounts from Elephantine and Saqqara in the Persian period and Edfu in the Ptolemaic period (TAD C3.1–29). (6) nine lists, likewise from Elephantine and Saqqara (TAD C4.1–9).

There was a distinctive mode of writing for each type of document. Letters and contracts were written in a single column on a roll held vertically, perpendicular to the fibers and parallel to the joins. Although a letter frequently continued on the verso, contracts rarely did (exceptions are TAD B1.1; 2.3; 3.3; 4.4). All other texts were written in columns on a roll held horizontally, parallel to the fibers and perpendicular to the joins. At the end of the fifth century a few contracts were also written this way (TAD B4.6; 7.1–3).

Letters.

Letters may be classified according to four categories—private, communal, official, and satrapal. At least eighteen letters may be assigned to the first category (TAD A2.1–7; 3.1–11). They are dispatched by peripatetic correspondents, Jewish and Aramean soldiers receiving government allotments (prs [TAD A2.3:8, 3.3:3; B4.2:6]). Their letters send and seek greetings, communicate matters of concern, issue instructions, enter requests, and occasionally contain such a significant piece of historical information as the succession to the throne of Nepherites in Epiph (= 27 September–26 October 399 BCE [TAD A 3.9]).

The ten papyri in the communal archive of leader and perhaps chief priest Jedaniah, son of Gemariah, are historically the most significant of the Elephantine texts (TAD A4.1–10). The fragmentary Passover letter sent to him in 419/18 by one Hananiah instructs the Jewish garrison in the proper observance of the two festivals (TAD A4.1). Three other letters attest to the tension between the devotees of YHW and of Khnum (TAD A4.2–4) that ultimately led to the destruction of the Jewish temple on the island by the Khnum priests in connivance with the Persian governor Vidranga (TAD A4.5–10). The most informative pieces are two drafts of a petition addressed to Bagohi, governor of Judah, on 25 November 407 BCE by Jedaniah and his colleagues, with a copy to the sons of Sanballat, governor of Samaria (TAD A7–8). In an oral memorandum, Bagohi and Delaiah, son of Sanballat, agreed to a limited reconstruction of the temple “on its site as it was formerly” but omitted permission to offer animal sacrifices (TAD A4.9). Blood on the altar was to be the exclusive prerogative of Jerusalem. The Jews at Elephantine accepted the limitation and in a further petition to “our lord,” perhaps Arsames, offered him a rich reward if he would allow reconstruction of the temple (TAD A4.10). The last contract of the Anani(ah) archive (13 December 402 BCE) records the continued presence of the temple of YHW (TAD B3.12:18–19), indicating that if it had not yet been rebuilt, its place had not been taken by another structure.

Five fragmentary letters may be classified as official, two from Elephantine concerning an hereditary land lease (TAD A5.2, 5), one from Saqqara dated 436/35 BCE (TAD A5.1), and two of unknown provenance (TAD A5.3–4). The persons involved in these letters are either Persians or Egyptians. The letters associated with the satrapal house of Arsames (TAD A6) illustrate well the bureaucratic procedures pursued in handling complaints and issuing instructions and orders.

Legal Documents.

The most intact of all the papyri are those acquired by purchase on the antiquities market. These constitute two family archives. The other legal documents (loosely referred to as “contracts”) may be divided into five categories—deeds of obligation (TAD B4.1–6), conveyances (TAD B5.1–5), documents of wifehood (TAD B6.1–4), judicial oaths (TAD B7.1–4), and court records (TAD B8.1–12). Representative documents from the first three categories appear also in the family archives. The parties regularly (except for Egyptians), and witnesses and neighbors occasionally, were identified by ethnicity (Aramean, Babylonian, Bactrian, Caspian, Jew, Khwarezmian), occupation ([member] of a [military] detachment, builder, boatman, [temple] servitor), and usually by residence (Elephantine, Syene) as well. The numerous witness signatures attest a high degree of literacy among the colonists.

The Mibtaḥiah archive contains eleven documents and spans three generations (471–410 BCE) of one of Elephantine's leading Jewish families. Mahseiah (“YH is refuge”), son of Jedaniah, may have named his daughter Mibtaḥiah (“YH is trust”) with the biblical verses Psalms 91:2, 118:8–9 (ḥsh > bṭ;ḥ) in mind, and she gave her two sons the patronyms Jedaniah and Mahseiah. Mibtaḥiah was twice married, the second time to an Egyptian, Esḥor, later known as Nathan. She accumulated three houses and four slaves; the houses passed on to her eldest son and the slaves were divided between her two sons (TAD B2.1–11).

The Anani(ah) archive contains thirteen documents and spans two generations (456–402 BCE) of two interrelated families. The first family consists of the minor temple official Anani(ah), son of Azariah; his Egyptian slave-wife, Ta(pa)met; their two children, Pelatiah/Pilti and Jehoishma; and their son-in-law, Anani(ah), son of Haggai. The second family consists of the creditor and slave owner Meshullam, son of Zaccur, and his son, also named Zaccur. The elder Anani(ah) had but one house, acquired as a piece of abandoned property from a Caspian couple (TAD B3.4 [437 BCE]) and disposed of in parts and stages by bequest and sale, first to his wife (TAD B3.5), then to his daughter (TAD B3.7, 10, 11), and finally to his namesake son-in-law (TAD B3.12). When the elder Anani(ah) married the handmaiden Ta(pa)met, her master Meshullam barely provided her with a dowry (TAD B3.3), but Anani(ah)'s emancipated daughter was handsomely endowed by her adoptive brother, Zaccur (TAD B3.8).

Literary and Historical Text.

Eleven sheets containing fourteen columns of the Aḥiqar text from Elephantine are preserved (TAD C1.1). The first five columns are narrative, relating the story of the “wise and skillful scribe … counselor of all Assyria and [be]arer of the seal” for King Sennacherib and his son, Esarhaddon. Decipherment of the erased customs account (TAD C3.7) underlying the Aḥiqar text corroborates the present order of the narrative, mandates a rearrangement of the plates with the proverbs, and suggests that the conclusion of the narrative followed the end of the proverbs. Being on the outside of the scroll, it was lost (introduction to TAD C1.1–2). The two fragments of The Prophecy of Ḥor and The Demise of Righteousness (TAD C1.2) are joined together by a thin strip in the middle (as proposed by Bezalel Porten and Ada Yardeni). The upper half of a fragmentary column is preserved on each side. On the recto the Egyptian magician Ḥor, known also from demotic texts, elusively tells the pharaoh “your bones shall not go down to Sheol.” The verso details the breakdown of social order followed by a divinely proclaimed redeemer.

The one historical text is a fragmentary copy of the original Bisitun inscription dispatched by Darius I to centers throughout the empire recording his victory over nineteen rebels in one year (TAD C2.1). The original Aramaic text must have consisted of eleven columns of seventeen to eighteen lines each, yielding a total of approximately 190 lines, of which seventy-nine have been recovered. A date in the Record of Memoranda on the verso (year 7 = 417 BCE [TAD C3.13:34]) suggests that the present copy may have been written to commemorate the hundredth anniversary of the great victories of Darius I, which fell shortly after the accession of his later namesake.

Accounts and Lists.

There are significant accounts from the three major sites, dealing with the disbursement or receipt of such commodities as silver (TAD C3.2, 4–5, 7, 11, 15, 25), grain (TAD C3.13–14, 16–18, 25–28), wine and oil (TAD C31, 7, 11–12, 18, 28–29). Only a few are intact. The most significant religiously and onomastically is the eight-column Collection Account from Elephantine, probably of 400 (TAD C3.15), listing 128 Jewish contributors of two shekels each, initially designated for YHW the God but at the end divided up between him and the deities Eshembethel and Anathbethel. Economically, the most significant text is the newly deciphered (Yardeni and Porten) Customs Account (TAD C3.7). Written on both sides of a fifty-sheet scroll In 475 BCE at one of Egypt's custom's stations, either Migdol (Jer. 44:1, 46:14; Ez. 29:10, 30:6; TAD A3.3:4), Daphne-Tahpanhes (Jer. 43:9), or Memphis (TAD C3.8IIIA:11, IIIB:16), it was subsequently erased to make way for the Words of Aḥiqar. It attests to forty-two sailings in ten months of four different kinds of ships (thirty-six Ionian and six “Phoenician”) and the duty (mndt') in kind paid on entry and the dues (tšy = t3 šy.t) paid on exported natron. The import duty on the Greek ships includes gold staters, silver, Ionian wine, oil, a wooden support(?), coated and uncoated jars.

The “Phoenician” ships bring a variety of items—Sidonian wine of year 10 and of year 11; two kinds of iron (pkrn and sny), bronze, and tin; wood by weight and by number, including four different cuts of cedar (sy [“beam”?], mlwt [“board”?], pq [“plank”?], and p῾my [translation unknown]); two kinds of wool, designated by their village of origin; and clay. The turnaround time is one to three weeks, and a certain Glaphyros is known to have sailed twice (TAD C3.7Kv2:22f; Gr2:15f). Some Babylonian-Egyptian double dates allow the reconstruction of several sheets from the Memphis Shipyard Journal for the years 473–471 (TAD C3.8). North Saqqara has yielded several very fragmentary land registries (TAD C3.20–24), using Persian words to describe the type of property (rstkh, 'wpsth) and measuring the area in arouras ('šln). Third-century BCE accounts, probably from Edfu, display Greek names (e.g., Apollonios, Bacchios, Herakleides, Hermias, and Jason) alongside a few northwest Semitic ones (e.g., Abdi, Abieti ['byty], Judah, Nathan, and Shabbethai).

Ethnically, the nine lists (TAD C4.1–9) display the cosmopolitan nature of society in the Persian period. A single onomastic group usually dominates each list. Lacking or missing title, they conceal their intent. Perhaps they constituted military units, collection lists (TAD C3.15), or ration lists (TAD C3.14, 27).

Ostraca and Jar Inscriptions.

Ostraca are texts written on pot shards and limestone flakes, while jar inscriptions were written, incised, or inked on the jar, usually at the top, at the time of its manufacture, transport, or storage. Some 330 Aramaic ostraca have been discovered, almost all from excavations at Elephantine (table 2). Unlike the papyri, which appeared in major collections, the ostraca were never assembled into one publication and there is no standard method of citation. There are twenty-six jar inscriptions, mostly fragmentary, from Elephantine, Saqqara, and Edfu (table 3).

The ostraca may be divided into four groups—letters, lists, accounts, and two abecedaries. The largest category is letters. Almost all of the Elephantine ostraca were written by a single scribe in the first quarter of the fifth century BCE taking dictation at Syene from soldiers needing to communicate with their family and friends in Elephantine. The letters were written on randomly shaped ostraca that measured roughly 7 × 10 cm, beginning regularly on the concave side and continuing on the convex and averaging a dozen lines. A ferry service plied the waters of the Nile between Syene (Aswan) and Elephantine (Gazirat al-Aswan) in Persian times as today, and these notes were sent with the boatman of these ships. Communication was meant to be immediate, and often a sense of urgency pervades the letters. They are full of reports and requests for objects and information. One ostracon reports an unsettling experience—“Now, lo a dream I saw and from that time I am very hot. May Jḥamoliah see my wellbeing” (table 2.1). In the realm of religion, they are a valuable source of information on divine epithets, divine intervention in personal affairs, the Jewish temple, oaths, Sabbath, Passover, and purity. The divine name spelled YHW in the later papyri is written in the early papyri and in all these ostraca YHH. Orthographic evidence indicates that it was pronounced something like “Yaho” and not “Yahu.” One of the strangest instructions, backed by an oath-supported threat, is contained in a letter to the woman Islaḥ, “Now, behold, legumes I shall send tomorrow. Meet the boat tomorrow on the Sabbath. Lest, if they get lost, by the life of YHH, if not (= surely) yo[ur] life I shall take. Do not rely on Meshullemeth and on Shemaiah” (table 2.63). Almost as cryptic is the query of Hoshaiah, “Send me (word) when you will do (observe/perform) the Passover” (table 2.40). Is it a matter of calendar or purity? One ostracon may be reconstructed to read, “Do not dispatch to me bread without it being sealed (ḥtm). Lo, all the jars are impure (ṭ;m'n). Behold, the bread which [yo]u disp[atched] to me yesterday is im[pure]” (table 2.62).” The marzeaḥ, barely alluded to in the Bible (Jer. 16:5; Am. 6:7), appears prominently in one of the ostraca (table 2.46).

Fifteen ostraca may be classified as lists (table 2a), twelve as accounts (table 2b), and they bear the same features as their papyrus counterparts. Some are onomastically homogeneous (all Jewish [tables 2.8 = 2b.3] or all Egyptian [tables 2.6 = 2b.2]), and others are mixed (tables 2.79 = 2a.14). One exclusively Egyptian list, uniquely written on both sides, includes a couple names that are popular in demotic documents but otherwise absent from the Aramaic texts—Es(p)metsheps ('smtšbs [“He of the glorious staff”]) and Espetensene ('spṭ;nsny [“He of him who is in Bigeh”]) (tables 2.80 = 2a.15). The ostraca accounts are all Ptolemaic and probably all, with but one exception, from Edfu. The names are followed by monetary or other notations. The names in one account are distinctly mixed—Greek (Theodore [twdrs], Egyptian (Taba), Hebrew (Shabbethit and Abram), and Aramaic (Abieti) (tables 2.3 = 2b.1). Several of the Jewish names are characteristic of the Ptolemaic period and do not appear in Achaemenid Elephantine—Abieti (“[my] father will come”), Abram, Dallui, Jidleh, Jotakum (“YW, may you arise”), Judith, and Simeon. The abecedaries come from Elephantine (table 2.78) and North Saqqara (table 2.81).

Eight of the Elephantine jar inscriptions were written by the same scribe (table 3.3, 7–8, 10, 13–14, 16, 18). Two reconstructed Elephantine jars show three names each, one written in Aramaic by this scribe at the top of the jar near the handle and two in a different hand in Phoenician farther down, one below the other (table 3.13–14) A large percentage of the Phoenician theophorous names are compounded with Ptaḥ or Apis, the deities of Memphis, and so the jars must have subsequently passed into the hands of Phoenicians there and only later made their way down to Elephantine. Numerous sherds bear the Phoenician inscription lmlk followed by the ṭ;et-like sign (believed by some to mean “royal measure” [Orli Goldwasser and Joseph Naveh, “The Origin of the Ṭet Symbol,” Israel Exploration Journal 26 (1976): 15–19]), and two sherds carry this formula in Aramaic (table 3.5). Two jars from Abu Sir contain an unexplained fragmentary text—lslk ῾m lbws̆' ḥ /// /// /// (table 3.1–2). One fragmentary inscription reads “To Psamshek … cohort commander (rb kṣr'; table 3.15). The Saqqara jars contain an incised potter's mark (bb [table 3.19a]), an inked notation of contents (mglt or simply mg [table 3.22, 26], “scroll,” that is, papyrus rolls), or a dedication “To Nabu” (table 3.23), known to have a temple at Syene (TAD A2.3:1; table 10.8).

Sundry Inscriptions with Names.

The inscriptions on other small objects (stone plaques [table 4], wood [table 5], seals and bullae [table 6], statuettes [table 7], silver bowls [table 8], mummy labels [table 9], and coins), as well as on sarcophagi (table 10), and tombstones (table 11) are mostly names. The seals, bullae, and coins, some of the wooden inscriptions, a bowl, a statuette, two mummy labels, three sarcophagi, and a tomb inscription all have but a single name each. Once more, the outstanding feature about these fifteen names is their onomastic and presumably ethnic diversity—Aramean (Aḥinuri, Hadadezer, and Ezer [seals (tables 5.6, 6.1, 4)]; Ammishezib [wooden palette (table 5.3)]; Sharah [mummy label (table 9.7)], Assyrian (Belsaruṣur [statuette (table 7.1]), Egyptian (Ḥarkhebe [seal (table 6.6)], Ḥor [sarcophagus (table 10.2)]), and Teehur [mummy label (table 9.8)]), Hebrew (Shabbethai [sarcophagus (table 10.1)] and Uri [tombstone (table 11.6)]), and Persian (Bagamarazdiya [seal (table 6.2)] and Bukhsha [sarcophagus (table 10.15)]). As recently read by Naveh, one seal bears the Arabian name Ubaid son of Siniyad (table 6.5).

Most of the names recorded on mummy labels (table 9), sarcophagi (table 10), and tombstones (table 11) give both prenomen and patronym. As expected, Elephantine shows Jews (Shabah, son of Hosea [mummy label (table 9.1)]; see also table 4.2) and Syene, Arameans (Abutai, daughter of Shamashnuri [sarcophagus (table 10.3)]). The material from South Saqqara displays a mixed Aramean-Egyptian ambience with a touch of Persian. Burial proximity and prosopographical considerations on six sarcophagi permit the reconstruction of three family groups—(1) †Agri(ya), son of †Bethelzabad, son of Eshemram (tables 9.3, 6; 10.10); (2) Ḥeremnathan, son of Besa, son of Zabdi (table 9.5; 10.12); (3) Ḥeremnathan, son of Peṭ;(e)esi, son of Sharah, son of Pasi (table, 10.7, 16–17, 20). At least three of the dead were temple officials, one far from home—the priest Ḥeremshezib, son of Ashah (table 10.5); “Sharah the servitor” (table 9.7), who may be the same as the above Sharah; and Sheil, a priest of Nabu at Syene (table 10.8). The names of two brothers appear on either side of a ceramic mummy label (table 9.4)—Paḥe, son of Bagadata, and Bagafarna, son of Bagadata. Perhaps they died young and belong to the twin heads from a fragmentary unpublished coffin lid (Egyptian Museum, Cairo, JE 55246). Four of the buried parties are women. The mummy labels were usually placed on the chest of the deceased. The coffin inscriptions were written twice or three times, either inscribed and painted or just painted above the head or on the chest of the lid and on the side, usually at the shoulders on the outside, but twice on the inside (table 10.9, 13), allowing the deceased to “look” at his name. Twelve Jewish tombstones of the Ptolemaic period have been uncovered—three at the necropolis at el-Ibrahimiya in Alexandria and nine in Edfu. Only one of the Alexandrian inscriptions is fully intelligible (table 11.2) and it bears the unique Hebrew names Akabiah, son of Elioenai (“to YW are my eyes [directed]”). Is he related to one of the last biblical Davidic descendants, Akkub, son of Elioenai (1 Chr. 3:24)? Like the Arameans of Saqqara, the Jews of Edfu were buried with their families. Obadiah, son of Simeon, written on a reused offering table (table 11.5), and Nathn(a)i, son of Simeon, (table 11.7) were probably brothers. A third Edfu stone (table 11.4) bears four names, apparently father and children—Azgad, son of Mdy/Mry and the three persons related to Azgad, namely the woman Shelomzi(o)n, Zebadiah, and Meshullam. Azgad appears as the name of a family head among the Judean repatriates (Ezr. 2:12, 8:12; Neh. 7:17, 10:16), and the name Shelomzion (“welfare of Zion”) is well known in Second Temple times, as are Nathn(a)i, Obadiah, and Simeon.

A unique memorial inscription of uncertain provenience (table 11.14) reads “To Anan ('nn), son of Elish ('lys̆), the priest of Baal, husband (b῾l) of Anoth (῾nwt).” Neither of the personal names is attested elsewhere, and the form of the divine name is strange. Some scholars doubt the inscription's authenticity. Other items inscribed on these small objects include accounts on both sides of a wooden palette (table 5.5), a duplicate date formula (“On the 24th of Ab, year 2 Artaxerx[es]”) incised and inked on a triangular limestone plaque from the Apries palace in Memphis (table 4.1), and the words 'wy ly, (“woe unto me”?) incised on a small figurine (table 7.3).

Funerary, Votive, and Dedicatory Inscriptions.

The Aramaic-speaking peoples in Egypt were not only buried in Egyptian style but they also produced Egyptianizing funerary stelae and offering tables (table 12). The stelae depict familiar funerary scenes in two or three upper registers with a one- or four-line Aramaic inscription at the bottom (table 12.1–3) or between two registers (table 12.5–6). One stela (table 12.1) also has a hieroglyphic inscription. The embalmed deceased is lying on a (lion) couch above four canopic jars (table 12.2–3), flanked by the goddesses Nephthys and Isis (table 12.3) and anointed by the god Anubis (table 12.1, 3–4). A second register depicts mourners in Semitic garb and coiffure (table 12.1, 4–5). The third register, usually the upper one, shows offerings being made by the deceased to Osiris (table 12.1, 3), with Isis (and Nephthys) standing behind him. Most of the names and patronyms or matronyms of these defunct Arameans are Egyptian and they are to be blessed by Osiris—Taba, daughter of the woman Taḥapi (table 12.3); Ankhoḥapi, son of the woman Taḥabes (table 12.5); Tumma (tm' [Aramaic]), daughter of Bocchoris (bkrnp) (table 12.2); and Peṭ;eesi, son of Yh' … (table 12.4). The mixed onomastic situation is best illustrated by a dated stela (Meḥir, year 4 of Xerxes = 21 May–19 June 482 BCE [table 12.1]) prepared by the Aramean Absali for his Aramean father, Abah, son of Egyptian Ḥor and Aramean mother, Aḥatabu, daughter of the Jew Adaiah. A new reading (Yardeni) shows that the couple came from the city ḥstmḥ = Ḫ3s.t Ṯmḥy, near Marea on the Lybian border (Herodotus, 2.30; Henri Gauthier, Dictionnaire des noms géographiques contenus dans les textes hiéroglyphiques, vol. 4, Cairo, 1927, p. 159). One stela with three Egyptian loanwords (table 12.3) is a quatrain of three four-beat bicola with an occasional hint of internal rhyme and a concluding three-beat bicolon—“Nothing of evil has she done/Nor slander of anyone has she spoken at all.” The four-line inscription on the offering table (table 12.6) begins “the offering table (ḥtpy) for the offering (lqrbt) of Banit to Osiris-Ḥapi (= Serapis) made Abitab, son of Banit, for her” (lh [sic, according to Yardeni]).

The milieu of these stelae may be Egyptian, but the inscription genre background is West Semitic. Comparison may be made with the four inscribed libation bowls from Tell el-Maskhuta in the eastern Delta (table 8.1–4). These votive offerings are inscribed “to Han-Ilat” (lhn'lt); “which Ṣeḥa, son of Abdamru (῾bd῾mrw), offered to Han-Ilat”; “which Qainu, son of Geshem, king of Qedar offered to Han-Ilat”; “Ḥarbek [“Horus (the) falcon”], son of Pasiri, offered to Han-Ilat the goddess.” A generation after Geshem the Arabian opposed Nehemiah's fortification of Jerusalem (Neh. 2:19, 6:1–2, 6), his son and others bearing Egyptian names were worshiping at the shrine of an Arabian goddess in the Nile Delta. A similar bowl, also presumably from Egypt and dated a century later, is inscribed with a single Persian name Tirifarna (tryprn [table 8.5]).

The presence of Persians in Aramaic dedicatory inscriptions is evidenced from a sandstone building inscription from Aswan (table 12.7). An upper panel is possibly missing; what is visible reads “this shrine (brzmdn'), garrison commander of Syene, made in the month of Sivan, that is Meḥir, year seven of Artaxerxes the king (= 6–14 June 458 BCE).…” The inscription follows a pattern known in early Phoenician dedicatory inscriptions (KAI 7) and continued into contemporary Aramaic inscriptions from Cilicia (KAI 258 = Gibson, no. 33). In both the Cilician and Elephantine inscriptions the object described is indicated by a Persian word—patikara- and brazmādāna- respectively. Another Old Persian loanword, drwt (“welfare”), must have introduced the concluding blessing to be bestowed upon the garrison commander (the reading Vidranga is excluded) who built the shrine and set up the inscription.

Graffiti.

Almost fifty Aramaic graffiti have been located at eleven locations in Egypt from Giza, Ma῾sarah, and Dahshur near Memphis, through Wadi Sheikh Sheikhun, Abydos, Wadi Hammamat, and Wadi Abu Qwei north of Thebes, Gebel Abu Gurob, Wadi el-Shatt er-Rigal, Aswan, and Wadi el-Hudi, and as far south as Tomas in Lower Nubia (table 13). Almost all of these sites have yielded numerous inscriptions, small and large, and the Aramean-writing travelers followed in the path of their predecessors and contemporaries. Most inscriptions remain in situ and require collation. One was a royal dedicatory inscription of unknown provenance with an incised prenomen (table 13.51). The Egyptian-Aramean ambience is again prominent here—for example, Abitab son of Shumtab, Zur son of Kamam, Belhabeh (“Bel, give him”), Ḥeremnathan, Ḥeremshezib, Jinamiom (yn῾mywm, “may day be pleasant” [unlocated]), Nabunathan, and Shumieti (table 13.3–4, 9, 19, 22, 27, 33–34, 51) are Aramean, and Esḥor, Ḥori, Patou, Peṭ;emun, Peṭ;eesi, and Peṭ;eneesi son of Peṭ;osiri are Egyptian (table 12.7–8, 13–14, 20, 23–24, 26–27). One name is Babylonian ([Mar]dukshumukin [table 13.1]), another possibly Arabian (Ḥaggag son of Ablat [table 13.12]), and a couple may be Anatolian (table 13.17–18). Not one is distinctly Jewish. At some sites the traveler simply wrote his name (Ma῾sarah, Dahshur, Gebel Abu-Gurob, and Tomas). Often he incised a proskynema, that is, an obeisance—“blessed be PN (son of PN) to/before DN.” At the temple of Seti I in Abydos (table 13.7–18), the visitor came, along with so many others, as a pilgrim to Osiris. Elsewhere other deities were invoked—Horus, Isis, and Khnum at Wadi el-Shatt er-Rigal (table 13.37–41); the god of the eastern desert, Min, at Wadi Abu Qwei and probably at Wadi Sheikh Sheikhun (table 13.6, 26–29); and Shamash (or Sun), “the great god,” the god of the rock and the god of Egypt in Wadi el-Hudi above Aswan (table 13.43–45, 47). The Giza graffito records the arrival of a caravan (table 13.1); that in Wadi Hammamat is an abecedary (table 13.25); and A. H. Sayce imagined the word by, “house,” written three times at the Aswan sandstone quarry (table 13.42). The longest graffito is dated, runs nine lines (table 13.47), and contains a blessing formula whose first part is unique and whose second half is reminiscent of an epistolary praescriptio—“blessed be he who wrote this inscription before the god of the mountain and the god of Egypt that they grant me welfare and favor … and blessed be he who will read this inscri[ption]” (cf. TAD A4.3:2–3, 4.7:1–2]).

A Romance?

Last but not least and perhaps the most fascinating of all the Aramaic texts is an extremely fragmentary seventeen-panel inscription in a cave some 8 km (5 mi.) northeast of Sheikh Fadl. It was discovered by Flinders Petrie while excavating at Bahnasa (Oxyrynchus) and reported by Noel Aimé-Giron (Ancient Egypt 2 [1923]: 38–43). The text mentions King Taharqa, Pharaoh Necho, and a Psamtik/Psammetichus (but not the king of that name). A tantalizing line reads l' 'kl 'šbqnh 'škb ῾mh rḥm 'nh lhy [according to Ada Yardeni, not lḥy/sgy, “I cannot leave her. I shall lie with her. I love her abundantly.” A cryptic colophon mentions “year 5.”The tables on the following pages, compiled by Bezalel Porten, are supplements to his article “Egyptian Aramaic Texts,” which appears in volume 2, pages 213–219. The abbreviations below are used in the tables; some shortened forms of bibliographic data are also provided in full in the bibliography of Porten's article.

ÄM = Ägyptisches Museum, Berlin

Aimé-Giron = Aimé-Giron, N., Textes araméens d'Égypte. Cairo, 1931

ASAE = Annales du Service des Antiquités de l'Égypte

AÖAW = Anzeiger der österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften

Berlin = Staatliche Museen, Berlin

BIFAO = Bulletin de l'Institut Français d'Archéologie Orientale du Caire

BM = British Museum, London

BSOAS = Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies

Cairo = Egyptian Museum, Cairo

CdE = Chronique d'Égypte

CG = Clermont-Ganneau collection, Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, Paris

CRAI = Comptes rendus des séances de l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres

CIS = Corpus Inscriptionum Semiticarum

EVO = Egitto e Vicino Oriente

ESE = Lidzbarski, M., Ephemeris für semitische Epigraphik. 3 vols. Giessen, 1902–1915

Gibson = Gibson, J. C. L., Textbook of Syrian Semitic Inscriptions. Vol. 2. Oxford, 1975

Grelot = Grelot, P., Documents araméens d'Égypte. Paris, 1972.

Herr = Herr, L., The Scripts of Ancient Northwest Semitic Seals. Missoula, 1978

IEJ = Israel Exploration Journal

JAOS = Journal of the American Oriental Society

JE = Journal d'Entrée, Egyptian Museum, Cairo

JRAS = Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society

KAI = Donner, H. and Röllig, W., Kanaanäische und aramäische Inschriften. Wiesbaden, 1966

Krug. = Lidzbarski, M., Phönizische und aramäische Krugaufschriften aus Elephantine. Berlin, 1912

London = British Museum, London

MAI = Mémoires presentés par divers savants à l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres

MDAIK = Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts, Abteilung Kairo.

NESE = R. Degen, W. W. Müller, and W. Röllig, Neue Ephemeris für semitische Epigraphik. Weisbaden, 1972–1978.

OLP = Orientalia Lovaniensia Periodica

OLZ = Orientalistische Literaturzeitung

Oxford = Bodleian Library, Oxford

Paris = Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, Paris

PSBA = Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archaeology

RA = Revue d'Assyriologie et d'Archéologie Orientale

RAO = Recueil d'Archéologie Orientale

RÉJ = Revue des Études Juives

RÉS = Répertoire d'Épigraphie Semitique

RHR = Revue de l'Histoire des Religions

RSO = Rivista degli Studi Orientali

RT = Recueil de Travaux Relatifs à la Philologie et à l'Archéologie Égyptiennes et Assyriennes

Sachau = Sachau, E., Aramäische Papyrus und Ostraka aus einer jüdischen Militärkolonie zu Elephantine. 2 vols. Leipzig, 1911.

Sayce-Cowley = Sayce, A. H., and Cowley, A. E., Aramaic Papyri Discovred at Assuan. London, 1906.

TAD A,B,C,D = Porten, B., and Yardeni, A., Textbook of Aramaic Documents from Ancient Egypt, Newly Copied, Edited, and Translated into Hebrew and English. Vols. 1–3, Jerusalem, 1986–1993; vol. 4, in preparation.

WZKM = Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde des Morgenlandes

Table 1. Chronological List of the Discovery of Papyri and Parchments. Forty-one separate finds or acquisitions between 1815 and 1988



Discovery (Publication) Item Site Discoverer/Acquirer Museum/Library Editio Princeps TAD A-D
1. 1815–1819 (1960) 2 fragmentary letters Elephantine Giovanni Battista Belzoni Museo Civico, Padua Edda Bresciani A3.3–4
2. 1824 (1889) Fragmentary letter Unknown Bernardino Drovetti Museo Egizio, Turin CIS, vol. 2.1, 144 A5.3
3. 1825 (1889) Tale of Hor b. Punesh Unknown Duc de Blacas British Library, London CIS, vol. 2.1, 145 C1.2
4. 1826 (1889) Disbursement of wine Unknown Drovetti Louvre, Paris CIS, vol. 2.1, 146 C3.12
5. 1827 (1889) Fragmentary list Unknown Stefano Borgia Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Vatican City CIS, vol. 2.1, 148 C4.9
6. 1827 (1889) Treasury account Unknown Henry Salt Musei Vaticani, Vatican City CIS, vol. 2.1, 147 C3.19
7. 1842–1845 (1893) Court record Unknown Karl Richard Lepsius Staatliche Museen, Berlin CIS, vol. 2.1, 149 B8.5
8. pre-1862 (1893) Fragmentary letter Serapeum, Memphis F. Auguste Mariette Egyptian Museum, Cairo CIS, vol. 2.1, 151 A5.4
9. pre-1862 (1893) Fragmentary letter Serapeum, Memphis Mariette Cairo CIS, vol. 2.1, 152 (Cowley No. 77) D1.16
10. pre-1862 (1893) Fragmentary land registry Serapeum, Memphis Mariette Cairo CIS, vol. 2.1, 150 C3.21
11. pre-1884 (1974) Fragmentary account Unknown Wilhelm Fröhner Universitätsbibliothek, Göttingen Rainer Degen C3.2
12. pre-1887 (1923) Fragmentary account Unknown John Gardner Wilkinson Harrow School Museum, London Cowley No. 83 C3.27
13. 1888 (1906) Abu Sir Cairo RÉS 1789 = ESE, vol. 3, 127 D5.25
14. 1888 (1906) Abu Sir Cairo RÉS 1790 = ESE, vol. 3, 127–128 D5.11
15. (1893) Fragmentary account Unknown Cairo CIS II/1 153 C3.25
16. pre-1903 (1915) Fragmentary account Saqqara Wilhelm Spiegelberg Cairo Mark Lidzbarski C3.1
17. 1893 (1953) Anani(ah) family archive (13), 2 letters, 1 fragmentary list Elephantine Charles Edwin Wilbour Brooklyn Museum Emil G. Kraeling A3.9 B3.2–13 B6.1 C3.16
18. 1898 (1903) Fragmentary letter Elephantine Spiegelberg Bibliothèque Nationale, Strasbourg Julius Euting A4.5
19. 1901 (1903) Loan contract Elephantine Archibald Henry Sayce Bodleian Library, Oxford Arthur Ernest Cowley B4.2
20. 1902 (1902) Fragmentary list Elephantine Gaston Maspero Acadámie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, Paris Melchior de Vogüé (Cowley No. 79) D3.24
21. 1902 (1905, 1917, 1971, 1983) Fragmentary letter Saqqara Maspero Paris Charles Clermont-Ganneau, Maurice Sznycer, Bezalel Porten A5.1
22. 1902 (1902, 1986) Fragmentary letter Elephantine Maspero Paris de Vogüé, Porten A5.5
23. 1904 (1906) Mibtahiah family archive (10 texts) Elephantine Lady William Cecil, Robert Mond Oxford (1), Cairo (9) Sayce, Cowley B2.1–4, 6–11
24. 1904 (1988) Fragmentary contract Elephantine Collection of Mrs. Raden Ajoe Jodjana Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, Leiden Jacob Hoftijzer D2.12
25. 1906 (1907) Scroll of accounts Edfu? (acquired at Luxor) Sayce Oxford Sayce, Cowley C3.28
26. 1906 (1915) Fragmentary letter Edfu? (acquired at Luxor) Sayce Oxford Cowley (Cowley 82) D1.17
27. 1906–1908 (1911, 1970, 1974, 1978, 1988) 20 letters, 18 contracts, 9 lists/accounts, Bisitun, Ahiqar (with erased Customs Account), fragments Elephantine Otto Rubensohn, Friedrich Zucker Berlin, Cairo Eduard Sachau, Zuhair Shunnar, Degen, Porten A3.1–2, 5–8, 10; 4.1–4, 6–10; 5.2; 6.1–2; B3.1; 4.1, 3–6; 5.1–2, 4–5; 6.2–4; 7.1–4; 8.5; C1.1; 2.1; 3.3–4, 7, 9, 13–15; 4.4–8
28. 1913 (1921) Fragmentary list Saqqara James Edward Quibell Cairo Noel Aimé-Giron C4.1
29. 1924–1925 (1931) Fragmentary account South Saqqara Gustave Jéquier Cairo Aimé-Giron C3.26
30. 1926 (1931) Memphis Shipyard Journal; fragmentary list; fragments South Saqqara Cecil Mallaby Firth Cairo Aimé-Giron partly in C3.8; 4.2
31. (1931) Fragments Unknown Cairo Aimé-Giron partly in C3.17; 4.2
32. 1930s (1962) Consignment of oil Edfu? Given by Giulio Farina to Giorgio Levi Della Vida Istituto di Studi del Vicino Oriente, University of Rome Bresciani C3.29
33. 1933 (1954) 13 parchment letters; 12 plates of fragments Unknown Ludwig Borchardt Oxford Godfrey R. Driver A6.1–16
34. 1934–1935 (1959) Fragmentary letter El-Hibeh Evaristo Breccia Museo Archaeologico, Florence Bresciani A3.11
35. pre-1936 (1936) Joint venture agreement El-Hibeh Bruno Meissner Bayerische Staats-bibliothek, Munich Hans Bauer, Meissner B1.1
36. 1940 (1971) Fragmentary account Saqqara Zaki Saad Cairo Bresciani C3.10
37. 1942 (1948) Letter of Adon King of Ekron Saqqara Saad Cairo André Dupont-Sommer A1.1
38. 1945 (1966) 8 private letters Hermopolis (for Luxor and Syene) Sami Gabra Faculty of Archaeology, University of Cairo Bresciani, Murad Kamil A2.1–7
39. 1966–1967, 1971–1973 (1983) 202 papyrus fragments North Saqqara Walter B. Emery, Geoffrey T. Martin Cairo Judah Benzion Segal partly in B4.7; 5.6; 8.1–4, 6–12; C3.6, 11, 18, 20, 22–24; 4.3
40. c. 1965–1970 2-line epistolary formula on back of demotic papyrus Unknown Don José Palau-Ribes Casamit-Jana Seminari di Papirologia, Barcelona (Sant Cugat del Vallès) Unpublished D1.34
41. 1988 2 lists + fragments Elephantine German Archaeological Institute Cairo Wolfgang Röllig D3.15–17

Tables 2–13. Alphabetic Museum List of Inscriptions on Pottery, Wood, and Stone

Table 2. Ninety Ostraca (Letters, Accounts, Lists, Abecedary)



Museum/Library Numbers; Acquistion Source Place and Date of Discovery/Acquistion Initial Publications Fitzmyer/Kaufman Aramaic Bibliography
1. Berlin P. 1137; Adolf Erman Elephantine; 1886 CIS, vol. 2.1, 137 = Sachau 78 (Pl. 65,3) = KAI 270 = Gibson 123 B.3.c.47
2. Berlin P. 8763; Ludwig Borchardt Elephantine; 1897 Sayce-Cowley P = RÉS 496, 1804 B.3.c.42/48 APO 77/1
3. Berlin P. 10678; Carl Schmidt Edfu; 1905 Sachau 75 (Pl. 62,1) = RÉS 1794 B.3.f.33.1
4. Berlin P. 10679; Otto Rubensohn Elephantine; 1905 Sachau 77 (Pl. 64,2) = RÉS 1792 B.3.c.21
5. Berlin P. 10680; Rubensohn Elephantine; 1905 Sachau 78 (Pl. 65,2) = RÉS 1795 B.3.c.23
6. Berlin P. 10852; Schmidt Edfu Sachau 75 (Pl. 62,2) B.3.f.33.2
7. Berlin P. 10964; Schmidt Edfu; 1906 Sachau 81 (Pl. 68,1) B.3.f.33.3
8. Berlin P. 10974; Schmidt Edfu; 1906 Sachau 81 (Pl. 68,2) B.3.f.33.4
9. Berlin P. 11363; Friedrich Zucker Elephantine; 1908 Sachau 77 (Pl. 64,3) B.3.c.48 APO 79/3
10. Berlin P. 11365; Zucker Elephantine; 1908 Sachau 80 (Pl. 67,5)
11. Berlin P. 11366; Zucker Elephantine; 1908 Sachau 84 (Pl. 71,1+2)
12. Berlin P. 11368; Zucker Elephantine; 1908 Sachau 80 (Pl. 67,7) B.3.c.48 APO 80/7
13. Berlin P. 11369; Rubensohn Elephantine; 1906–1907 Sachau 76 (Pl. 63,3) B.3.c.48 APO 76/3
14. Berlin P. 11370; Rubensohn Elephantine; 1906–1907 Sachau 80 (Pl. 67,4)
15. Berlin P. 11371; Rubensohn Elephantine; 1906–1907 Sachau 79 (Pl. 66,1)
16. Berlin P. 11372; Rubensohn Elephantine; 1906–1907 unpublished
17. Berlin P. 11373; Rubensohn Elephantine; 1906–1907 Sachau 79 (Pl. 66,3)
18. Berlin P. 11374; Rubensohn Elephantine; 1906–1907 Sachau 79 (Pl. 66,5) B.3.c.48 APO 79/5
19. Berlin P. 11375; Rubensohn Elephantine; 1906–1907 Sachau 80 (Pl. 67,2) B.3.c.48 APO 80/2
20. Berlin P. 11376; Rubensohn Elephantine; 1906–1907 Sachau 84 (Pl. 71,5) B.3.c.48 APO 84/5
21. Berlin P. 11377; Rubensohn Elephantine; 1906–1907 Sachau 76 (Pl. 63,5) B.3.c.48 APO 76/5
22. Berlin P. 11378; Rubensohn Elephantine; 1906–1907 Sachau 80 (Pl. 67,3) B.3.c.48 APO 80/3
23. Berlin P. 11379; Rubensohn Elephantine; 1906–1907 Sachau 84 (Pl. 71,7) B.3.c.43
24. Berlin P. 11380; Rubensohn Elephantine; 1906–1907 Sachau 78 (Pl. 65,1) B.3.c.48 APO 78/1
25. Berlin P. 11381; Rubensohn Elephantine; 1906–1907 Sachau 84 (Pl. 71,3)
26. Berlin P. 11382; Rubensohn Elephantine; 1906–1907 Sachau 80 (Pl. 67,1) B.3.c.48 APO 80/1
27. Berlin P. 11453; Rubensohn Elephantine; 1906–1907 Sachau 79 (Pl. 66,4) B.3.c.48 APO 79/4
28. Berlin P. 12800 (= 17800) Elephantine? unpublished
29. Berlin P. 17801 Elephantine? unpublished
30. Berlin P. 17802 Elephantine? unpublished
31. Berlin P. 17818 Elephantine? unpublished
32. Berlin P. 17819 Elephantine? unpublished
33. Berlin P. 17820 Elephantine? unpublished
34. Berlin P. 17821 Elephantine? unpublished
35. Bodleian Library, Oxford, Aramaic Inscription (lost) 1; Archibald Henry Sayce Elephantine; 1901 Sayce-Cowley M = RÉS 492, 1800 B.3.c.36
36. Bodleian Aramaic Inscription 2; Sayce Elephantine; 1901 Sayce-Cowley N = RÉS 493, 1801 B.3.c.37
37. Bodleian Aramaic Inscription 3; Sayce Elephantine; 1901 Sayce-Cowley O = RÉS 494, 1802 B.3.c.48 APE 93
38. Bodleian Aramaic Inscription 4; Sayce Elephantine? Sayce-Cowley Q = RÉS 497, 1805 B.3.c.29
39. Bodleian Aramaic Inscription 6; Sayce Unknown, 1914 unpublished
40. Bodleian Aramaic Inscription 7; Sayce Elephantine; pre-1911 RÉS 1793 B.3.c.20
41. British Museum 14219; Greville John Chester Elephantine; 1875 CIS, vol. 2.1, 138 = RÉS 495, 1803 = KAI 271 B.3.c.28
42. BM 14220; Chester Elephantine; 1876 CIS, vol. 2.1, 139 B.3.c.48 APE 95
43. BM 45035; auction Unknown; 1906 Porten and Yardeni, Maarav 7 (1991): 207–217
44. BM 45036; auction Unknown; 1906 Porten and Yardeni, Maarav 7 (1991): 217–219
45. BM 133028 Unknown; 1906 Segal, Iraq 31 (1969): 173–174 B.3.c.35
46. Cairo JE 35468A Elephantine; 1902 RÉS 1295 = Sayce, PSBA 31 (1909): 154 B.3.c.30
47. Cairo JE 35468B Elephantine; 1902 RÉS 1296 = ESE, vol. 3, 121f = Aimé-Giron 3 B.3.c.31
48. Cairo JE 35468C Elephantine; 1902 RÉS 1297 = ESE, vol. 3, 122f = Aimé-Giron 4 B.3.c.32
49. Cairo JE 43464A; Zucker Elephantine; 1908 Sachau 76 (Pl. 63,2) B.3.c.41
50. Cairo JE 43464B; Rubensohn Elephantine; 1906–1907 Sachau 76 (Pl. 63,1) B.3.c.22
51. Cairo JE 43464C; Rubensohn Elephantine; 1906–1907 Sachau 76 (Pl. 63,4) B.3.c.48 APO 76/4
52. Cairo JE 43464D; Zucker Elephantine; 1908 Sachau 80 (Pl. 67,6) B.3.c.48 APO 80/6
53. Cairo JE 49624 Elephantine; 1925 Aimé-Giron, ASAE 26 (1926): 27–29 B.3.c.28
54. Cairo JE 49625 Elephantine; unknown Aimé-Giron, ASAE 26 (1926): 29–31 B.3.c.48 Aimé-Giron
55. Cairo JE 49635 Elephantine; 1924 Aimé-Giron, ASAE 26 (1926): 23–27 B.3.c.27
56. Cairo JE 64738; Lacau Edfu; 1933 Aimé-Giron 113 = BIFAO 38 (1939): 38–40 B.3.f.33.6
57. Cairo JE 67040; French-Polish excavations Edfu; 1937 Aimé-Giron 120 = BIFAO 38 (1939): 57–63 B.3.f.33.7
58. Cambridge 131–133; Henry Thompson Elephantine; pre-1929 Cowley, JRAS (1929): 107–111 B.3.c.34
59. Clermont-Ganneau 16 Elephantine; 1907 Dupont-Sommer, ASAE 48 (1948): 109–116 B.3.c.33
60. Clermont-Ganneau 44; Jean Clédat Elephantine; 1907 Dupont-Sommer, Studies Presented to G. R. Driver (1963), pp. 53–58 B.3.c.33
61. Clermont-Ganneau 70; Clédat Elephantine;1907 Dupont-Sommer, RHR 130 (1945): 17–28 (no photo) B.3.c.33
62. Clermont-Ganneau 125?; Clédat? Elephantine; 1907 Lozachmeur, Semitica 39 (1989): 29–36; Porten and Yardeni, JAOS 113 (1993): 451–455 B.3.c.33
63. Clermont-Ganneau 152 Elephantine; 1908 Dupont-Sommer, Semitica 2 (1949): 29–39 B.3.c.33
64. Clermont-Ganneau 167 Elephantine; 1908 Dupont-Sommer, CRAI (1947): 179–80 (no photo) B.3.c.33
65. Clermont-Ganneau 169 Elephantine; 1908 Dupont-Sommer, Revue des Études Sémitiques et Babyloniaca (1942–1945): 65–75 B.3.c.33
66. Clermont-Ganneau 175 Elephantine; 1908 Dupont-Sommer, CRAI (1947): 181–185 (no photo) B.3.c.33
67. Clermont-Ganneau 186 Elephantine; 1908 Dupont-Sommer, RSO 32 (1957): 403–409 B.3.c.33
68. Clermont-Ganneau 204 Elephantine Dupont-Sommer, MAI 15 (1960): 68–71 (no photo) B.3.c.33
69. Clermont-Ganneau 228; Gautier Elephantine; 1908–1909 Lozachmeur, Semitica 21 (1971): 81–93 B.3.c.33
70. Clermont-Ganneau 277; Gautier Elephantine; 1908–1909 Dupont-Sommer, RHR 128 (1944): 28–39 B.3.c.33
71. Columbia University Ostracon 97.4.18 Oxyrhynchus, 1897 unpublished
72. Elephantine Storeroom 1424 Elephantine; 1978 unpublished
73. Elephantine Storeroom 1661 Elephantine; 1979 Maraqten, MDAIK 43 (1987): 170–171
74. Elephantine Storeroom 2293 Elephantine; 1988 unpublished
75. Louvre E. 23566; Raymond Weill Kom el-Ahmar; 1912 RÉJ 65 (1913): 16–23
76. Munich, Staatliche Sammlung Ägyptischer Kunst, 898; Mook acquisition Elephantine; pre-1880 RÉS 1298 = ESE, vol. 3, 19–20, 21–22 B.3.c.24
77. Munich ÄS 899; Mook acquisition Elephantine; pre-1880 RÉS 1299 = ESE, vol. 3, 19–21 B.3.c.25
78. Pontifical Biblical Institute, Jerusalem Elephantine? Lemaire and Lozachmeur, Semitica 27 (1977): 99–103 B.3.c.26
79. Pushkin Museum, Moscow I.i.b 1029; Vladimir Golénischeff Elephantine; 1888–1889 CIS, vol. 2.1, 154 B.3.c.40
80. Pushkin I.i.b 1030; Golénischeff Elephantine; 1888–1889 CIS, vol. 2.1, 155 B.3.c.39
81. Saqqara Antiquities Service Register, 1525 North Saqqara Segal, North Saqqâra, No. VII
82. Spiegelberg Ostracon (lost) Unknown Lidzbarski, OLZ 30 (1927): 1043–1044 (no photo) B.3.f.32
83. Strasbourg Aramaic 2 Edfu?; pre-1908 RÉS 1301 = ESE, vol. 3, 25–26 B.3.c.45
84. Strasbourg Aramaic 3 Edfu?; pre-1908 RÉS 1300 = ESE, vol. 3, 22–25 B.3.c.44
85. Strasbourg Aramaic 6 Edfu?; pre-1908 ESE, vol. 3, 298–301 B.3.c.46
86. Vienna Aramaic Ostracon 1; Hermann Junker Edfu?; 1911 NESE, vol. 3, pp. 39–43 B.3.f.40
87. Vienna Aramaic Ostracon 2; Junker Elephantine?; 1911 NESE, vol. 3, pp. 34–39 B.3.c.19
88. Vienna Aramaic Ostracon 3; Junker Edfu?; 1911 NESE, vol. 3, pp. 43–47 B.3.f.40
89. Vienna Aramaic Ostracon 4; Junker Edfu?; 1911 NESE, vol. 3, pp. 48–57 B.3.f.40
90. Vienna Aramaic Ostracon 5; Wessely estate Edfu?; 1933 Porten and Yardeni, Maarav 7 (1991): 220–225

Table 2a. Fifteen Lists (included in above)



Museum/Library Number; Acquisition Source Place and Date of Discovery/Acquisition Initial Publications Fitzmyer/Kaufman Aramaic Bibliography
1. Berlin P. 11373; Otto Rubensohn Elephantine; 1906–1907 Sachau 79 (Pl. 66,3)
2. Berlin P. 11374; Rubensohn Elephantine; 1906–1907 Sachau 79 (Pl. 66,5) B.3.c.48 APO 79/5
3. Berlin P. 11375; Rubensohn Elephantine; 1906–1907 Sachau 80 (Pl. 67,2) B.3.c.48 APO 80/2
4. Berlin P. 11376; Rubensohn Elephantine; 1906–1907 Sachau 84 (Pl. 71,5) B.3.c.48 APO 84/5
5. Berlin P. 11381; Rubensohn Elephantine; 1906–1907 Sachau 84 (Pl. 71,3)
6. Berlin P. 11453; Rubensohn Elephantine; 1906–1907 Sachau 79 (Pl. 66,4) B.3.c.48 APO 79/4
7. Berlin P. 17801 Elephantine? unpublished
8. Berlin P. 17820 Elephantine? unpublished
9. British Museum, London 45036; auction Unknown; 1906 Porten and Yardeni, Maarav 7 (1991): 217–219
10. Egyptian Museum, Cairo JE 35468C Elephantine; 1902 RÉS 1297 = ESE, vol. 3, 122f = Aimé-Giron 4 B.3.c.32
11. Cairo 64738; Pierre Lacau Edfu; 1933 Aimé-Giron 113 = BIFAO 38 (1939): 38–40 B.3.f.33.6
12. Elephantine Storeroom 1424 Elephantine; 1978 unpublished
13. Elephantine Storeroom 2293 Elephantine; 1988 unpublished
14. Pushkin Museum, Moscow I.i.b 1029; Vladimir Golénischeff Elephantine; 1888–1889 CIS, vol. 2.1, 154 B.3.c.40
15. Pushkin I.i.b 1030; Golénischeff Elephantine; 1888–1889 CIS, vol. 2.1, 155 B.3.c.39

Table 2b. Thirteen Accounts (included in above)



1. Berlin P. 10678; Carl Schmidt Edfu; 1905 Sachau 75 (Pl. 62,1) = RÉS 1794 B.3.f.33.1
2. Berlin P. 10852; Schmidt Edfu Sachau 75 (Pl. 62,2) B.3.f.33.2
3. Berlin P. 10974; Schmidt Edfu; 1906 Sachau 81 (Pl. 68,2) B.3.f.33.4
4. Berlin P. 11363; Friedrich Zucker Elephantine; 1908 Sachau 77 (Pl. 64,3) B.3.c.48 APO 79/3
5. Egyptian Museum, Cairo 67040; French-Polish excavations Edfu; 1937 Aimé-Giron 120 = BIFAO 38 (1939): 57–63 B.3.f.33.7
6. Columbia University Ostracon Oxyrhynchus, 1897 unpublished
7. Louvre E. 23566; Raymond Weill Kom el-Ahmar; 1912 RÉJ 65 (1913): 16–23
8. Strasbourg Aramaic 2 Edfu?; pre-1908 RÉS 1301 = ESE, vol. 3, 25–26 B.3.c.45
9. Strasbourg Aramaic 6 Edfu?; pre-1908 ESE, vol. 3, 298–301 B.3.c.46
10. Vienna Aramaic Ostracon 1; Hermann Junker Edfu?; 1911 NESE, vol. 3, pp. 39–43 B.3.f.40
11. Vienna Aramaic Ostracon 3; Junker Edfu?; 1911 NESE, vol. 3, pp. 43–47 B.3.f.40
12. Vienna Aramaic Ostracon 5; Wessely estate Edfu?; 1933 Porten and Yardeni, Maarav 7 (1991): 220–225
13. Spiegelberg Ostracon (lost) Unknown Lidzbarski, OLZ 30 (1927): 1043–1044 (no photo) B.3.f.32

Table 3. Twenty-six Jar Inscriptions



Museum/Library Number; Acquisition Source Place and Date of Discovery/Acquisition Initial Publications Fitzmyer/Kaufman Aramaic Bibliography
1. Berlin P. 11359 (= P. 17804); Ludwig Borchardt Abu Sir; 1907 Sachau 85 (Pl. 72, 1)
2. Berlin P. 11360 (= P. 17803 + 17805); Ludwig Borchardt Abu Sir; 1907 Sachau 83 (Pl. 70, 5)
3. Berlin P. 11388; Otto Rubensohn Elephantine; 1906–1908 Sachau 84 (Pl. 71, 9) = Krug. 34 B.3.c.49
4. Berlin P. 11412; Rubensohn Elephantine; 1906–1908 Sachau 83 (Pl. 70,3) = Krug. 18 B.3.c.49
5. Berlin P. 11416; Rubensohn Elephantine; 1906–1908 Sachau 86 (Pl. 73,14) = Krug. 65 B.3.c.49
6. Berlin P. 11422; Rubensohn Elephantine; 1906–1908 Sachau 86 (Pl. 73,12) B.3.c.49
7. Berlin P. 11430; Rubensohn Elephantine; 1906–1908 Sachau 84 (Pl. 71,11) = Krug. 36 B.3.c.49
8. Berlin P. 11442; Rubensohn Elephantine; 1906–1908 Sachau 82 (Pl. 69,6) = Krug. 6 B.3.c.49
9. Berlin P. 11444; Rubensohn Elephantine; 1906–1908 Sachau 86 (Pl. 73,10) = Krug. 55 B.3.c.49
10. Berlin P. 11453 bis; Rubensohn Elephantine; 1906–1908 Sachau 84 (Pl. 71,6) = Krug. 32 B.3.c.49
11. Berlin P. 11459; Rubensohn Elephantine; 1906–1908 Sachau 85 (Pl. 72,17) B.3.c.49
12. Ägyptisches Museum, Berlin P. 17807; Rubensohn Elephantine; 1906–1908 unpublished
13. ÄM, Berlin 18429; Rubensohn Elephantine; 1906–1908 Sachau 82 (Pl. 69,15), 87 (Pl. 74,1) = Krug. 15
14. ÄM, Berlin 18432; Rubensohn Elephantine Sachau 82 (Pl. 69,14), 87 (Pl. 74,2) = Krug. 14
15. Egyptian Museum, Cairo JE 43198; Rubensohn Saqqara; 1911 Aimé-Giron 2 B.3.e.1
16. Cairo JE 43464G; Rubensohn Elephantine; 1906–1908 Sachau 84 (Pl. 71,4) = Krug. 31 B.3.c.49
17. Cairo JE 43464H; Rubensohn Elephantine; 1906–1908 Sachau 84 (Pl. 71,8) = Krug. 33 B.3.c.49
18 Cairo JE 43464JB; Rubensohn Elephantine; 1906–1908 Sachau 85 (Pl. 72,19) = Krug. 53 B.3.c.49
19. Cairo JE 53040; Rubensohn Edfu; 1929 Aimé-Giron 4bis B.3.f.33.5
19a. Cairo JE 63378 South Saqqara Aimé-Giron 121 = BIFAO 38 (1939): 63 (omitted; not Aramaic)
20. Elephantine Storeroom 1596 Elephantine; 1979 Maraqten, MDAIK 43 (1987): 170
21. Elephantine Storeroom 1597 Elephantine; 1979 Maraqten, MDAIK 43 (1987): 170
22. Saqqara Antiquities Service Register 725 North Saqqara Segal, North Saqqâra, No. I
23. Saqqara Antiquities Service Register 2189 North Saqqara Segal, North Saqqâra, No. XVI
24. Saqqara Antiquities Service Register 4371 North Saqqara Segal, North Saqqâra, No. XXVI
25. Saqqara Antiquities Service Register 5557 North Saqqara Segal, North Saqqâra, No. XXII
26. Saqqara Antiquities Service Register (unknown number) North Saqqara Bresciani, EVO 3 (1980): 16 B.3.f.9

Table 4. Two Stone Plaques



Museum/Library Number; Acquisition Source Item Description Place and Date of Discovery Initial Publications Fitzmyer/Kaufman
1. Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, Aramaic Ostracon 1 Limestone plaque dated 19 Aug. 403 BCE Memphis; pre-1909 Cowley, in Petrie, Apries, pp. 12–13; Lemaire, Semitica 37 (1987): 52–55 B.3.e.11
2. Berlin P. 11385; Rubensohn Opisthographic granite fragment with six names Elephantine; 1906–1907 Sachau 79 (Pl. 66,2) B.3.c.50

Table 5. Six Wooden Pieces (not including Mummy Labels)



1. Ägyptisches Museum, Berlin 11361; Friedrich Zucker Opisthographic fragment with hole at top Elephantine; 1907–1908 Sachau 83 (Pl. 70,15)
2. ÄM, Berlin 18468 (Sachau: incorrectly 18462); Otto Rubensohn Mummy label with string; name and title Elephantine; 1906–1907 Sachau 84 (Pl. 71,12) B.3.c.53
3. ÄM, Berlin 19435; Zucker Palette fragment?; personal name Elephantine; 1907–1908 Sachau 81 (Pl. 68,3) = Aimé-Giron, BIFAO 34 (1934): 86–87 B.3.c.54
4. Brooklyn Museum 16.99; Charles E. Wilbour Palette; obscure inscription Elephantine; 1893 Aimé-Giron 119 = BIFAO 38 (1939): 47–57
5. Louvre AF 11016 Opisthographic palette; accounts Provenance unknown Lemaire, Semitica 37 (1987): 47–55 B.3.f.35
6. Medinet Maadi (Narmuti) Handled stamp; name + verb Medinet Maadi (Narmuti); 1966 Bresciani, Medinet Maadi, 30–32

Table 6. Six Seals and Bullae (not including Wooden Pieces)



1. Aimé-Giron; personally acquired Eight-sided cone Provenance unknown Aimé-Giron 116 = BIFAO 38 (1939): 43–45
2. Aimé-Giron; personally acquired Light, striped, ellipsoidal agate cylinder Provenance unknown; 1934 Aimé-Giron 117 = BIFAO 38 (1939): 45–47 B.7.1.34
3. Bodleian Library, Oxford Sigill. aram. VIII., lap. insc. impr. Bulla Provenance unknown Driver, Aramaic Documents, 4, n. 1 B.7.1.66
4. Egyptian Museum, Cairo JE 25225 Quartz scaraboid seal Saqqara?; 1882 CIS, vol. 2.1, 124 = Herr 1 B.7.1.157
5. Israel Museum, Jerusalem 71.46.91 Black agate scaraboid seal Provenance unknown; pre-1954 Reifenberg, IEJ 4 (1954): 139
6. Pushkin Museum, Moscow, Seal N I, 2B 255; Vladimir Golénischeff Chalcedony scaraboid seal Provenance unknown; pre-1868 CIS, vol. 2.1, 140 = Herr 6 B.7.1.64

Table 7. Three Statuettes



Museum/Library Number; Acquisition Source Item Description Place and Date of Discovery Initial Publications Fitzmyer/Kaufman
1. Egyptian Museum, Cairo JE 31919 Red granite headless statue with name Provenance unknown; 1897 RÉS 965 = ESE, vol. 3, 117–18
2. Cairo JE 35562; Archibald Henry Sayce Sandstone statue with fragmentary name Qubbet el-Hawa; 1889 Maspero, ASAE 3 (1902): 96; Daressy, ASAE 17 (1917): 81–85; Ronzevalle, ASAE 17 (1917): 270–271
3. Pisa; personally acquired Clay statuette with lament Provenance unknown Bresciani, Hommages Dupont-Sommer, pp. 5–8 B.3.f.31 “possibly a forgery”

Table 8. Five Libation Bowls



1. Brooklyn Museum 54.50.32; Charles Edwin Wilbour Fund Silver bowl with dedication Tell el-Maskhuta pre-1956 Rabinowitz, JNES 15 (1956): 4–5 = Grelot 79 B.3.f.12
2. Brooklyn Museum 54.50.34; Wilbour Fund Silver bowl with dedication Tell el-Maskhuta pre-1956 Rabinowitz, JNES 15 (1956): 5–9 = Grelot 78 = Gibson 25 B.3.f.12
3. Brooklyn Museum 54.50.36; Wilbour Fund Silver bowl with dedication Tell el-Maskhuta pre-1956 Rabinowitz, JNES 15 (1956): 2–4 B.3.f.12
4. Brooklyn Museum 57.121; Wilbour Fund Silver bowl with dedication Tell el-Maskhuta pre-1956 Rabinowitz, JNES 18 (1959): 154–156; Honeyman, JNES 19 (1960): 40–41 B.3.f.12
5. Stockholm, Sweden; currently in Carl Kempe collection; Robert Erskine Silver bowl with name Provenance unknown; c. 1956 Bivar, BSOAS 24 (1961): 189–199; Hinz, 237 B.3.f.38

Table 9. Nine Mummy Labels



1. Ägyptisches Museum, Berlin 18464; Otto Rubensohn Wooden Elephantine; 1906–1907 Sachau 84 (Pl. 71,13) B.3.c.52
2. Egyptian Museum, Cairo JE 54157; Gustave Jéquier Ceramic; inscribed on convex South Saqqara; 1929–1930 Aimé-Giron 109 B.3.e.27
3. Cairo JE 54158; Jéquier Ceramic South Saqqara; 1929–1930 Aimé-Giron 111b (see Aimé-Giron 111a) B.3.e.27
4. Cairo JE 54159; Jéquier Ceramic; inscribed on convex South Saqqara; 1929–1930 Aimé-Giron 105 B.3.e.27
5. Cairo JE 54160; Jéquier Ceramic South Saqqara; 1929–1930 Aimé-Giron 112b (see Aimé-Giron 112a) B.3.e.27
6. Cairo JE 54161; Jéquier Ceramic South Saqqara; 1929–1930 Aimé-Giron 110b (see Aimé-Giron 110a) B.3.e.27
7. Cairo JE 55033; Jéquier Limestone South Saqqara; 1929–1930 Aimé-Giron 102 (see Aimé-Giron 96, 108) B.3.e.27
8. Lost; Jéquier Stone South Saqqara; 1930 Aimé-Giron 118 = BIFAO 38 (1939): 46 B.3.3.20
9. Cairo JE 63379 Wooden South Saqqara unpublished

Table 10. Twenty-two Inscribed Sarcophagi



Museum/Library Number; Acquisition Source Item Description Place and Date of Discovery Initial Publications Fitzmyer/Kaufman
1. Aswan Museum 2605; El-Hetta Painted sandstone anthropoid sarcophagus; at base, engraved inscription Aswan; 1963 Kornfeld, WZKM 61 (1967): 9–10, 12–13 B.3.f.4
2. Aswan Museum 2606; El-Hetta Painted sandstone anthropoid sarcophagus; at base, engraved inscription Aswan; 1963 Kornfeld, WZKM 61 (1967): 10–11, 13 B.3.f.4
3. Aswan Museum 2607; El-Hetta Painted sandstone female anthropoid sarcophagus; at base, engraved inscription Aswan; 1963 Kornfeld, WZKM 61 (1967): 11–14 B.3.f.4
4. Egyptian Museum, Cairo JE 55213; Gustave Jéquier Ceramic coffin lid South Saqqara; 1929–1930 Aimé-Giron 101 B.3.e.27
5. Cairo JE 55214a, b; Jéquier Ceramic coffin lid; left exterior South Saqqara; 1928–1929 Aimé-Giron 104a, c B.3.e.27
6. Cairo JE 55215a, b; Jéquier Ceramic coffin lid; left exterior South Saqqara; 1929–1930 Aimé-Giron 103a, c B.3.e.27
7. Cairo JE 55217; Jéquier (same vessel as JE 55224) Ceramic coffin lid South Saqqara; 1929–1930 Aimé-Giron 97a B.3.e.27
8. Cairo JE 55218; Jéquier Ceramic coffin left exterior South Saqqara; 1928–1929 Aimé-Giron 99 = Grelot 76 B.3.e.27
9. Cairo JE 55219; Jéquier Ceramic coffin left exterior South Saqqara; 1929–1930 Aimé-Giron 111a (see Aimé-Giron 111b) B.3.e.27
10. Cairo JE 55220; Jéquier Ceramic coffin left exterior South Saqqara; 1929–1930 Aimé-Giron 110a (see Aimé-Giron 110b) B.3.e.27
11. Cairo JE 55221; Jéquier (same vessel as JE 55222) Ceramic coffin right exterior South Saqqara; 1929–1930 Aimé-Giron 100b B.3.e.27
12. Cairo JE 55222; Jéquier (same vessel as JE 55221) Ceramic coffin lid South Saqqara; 1929–1930 Aimé-Giron 100a B.3.e.27
13. Cairo JE 55223; Jéquier Ceramic coffin right interior South Saqqara; 1929–1930 Aimé-Giron 112a (see Aimé-Giron 112b) B.3.e.27
14. Cairo JE 55224; Jéquier (same vessel as JE 55217) Ceramic coffin left exterior South Saqqara; 1929–1930 Aimé-Giron 97b B.3.e.27
15. Cairo JE 55225; Jéquier Ceramic coffin exterior South Saqqara; 1929–1930 Aimé-Giron 106 B.3.e.27
16. Cairo JE 55226; Jéquier (same vessel as JE 55227) Foot of ceramic coffin South Saqqara; 1929–1930 Aimé-Giron 96c B.3.e.27
17. Cairo JE 55227; Jéquier (same vessel as JE 55226) Ceramic coffin lid South Saqqara; 1929–1930 Aimé-Giron 96a, b (see Aimé-Giron 102) B.3.e.27
18. Cairo JE 55228; Jéquier Ceramic coffin left exterior South Saqqara; 1929–1930 Aimé-Giron 98 B.3.e.27
19. Cairo JE 55245; Jéquier Ceramic coffin lid South Saqqara; 1928–1929 Aimé-Giron 95 B.3.e.27
20. Cairo JE 55247; Jéquier Foot of ceramic coffin South Saqqara; 1928–1929 Aimé-Giron 108 (see Aimé-Giron 102) B.3.e.27
21. Cairo JE 63380; Jéquier Wooden fragment South Saqqara; 1929–1930 Aimé-Giron 115 = BIFAO 38 (1939): 43 B.3.3.21
22. Disintegrated; Jéquier Wooden lid South Saqqara; 1929–1930 Aimé-Giron 107

Table 11. Fourteen Tombstones and One Memorial Stela



1. Ägyptisches Museum, Berlin 18502 Limestone plaque with name Abu Sir; 1907 Sachau 87 (pl. 74,4) B.3.c.51
2. Greco-Roman Museum, Alexandria 5904; Evaristo Breccia Limestone; painted inscription El-Ibrahimiya (Alexandria); 1906 RÉS 798 B.3.f.39.3
3. Alexandria 18361; Breccia Limestone; painted inscription El-Ibrahimiya (Alexandria); 1906 RÉS 797 B.3.f.39.1
4. Alexandria, number not certain; Breccia Tombstone; painted inscription El-Ibrahimiya (Alexandria); 1906 RÉS 799
5. Edfu Storeroom Tombstone; incised inscription Edfu Kornfeld, AÖAW 110 (1973): 123–129; Kornfeld, Kairos 18 (1976): 58 B.3.f.41
6. Edfu Storeroom Reused offering table; incised inscription Edfu Kornfeld, AÖAW 110 (1973): 129–130 B.3.f.41
7. Edfu Storeroom Tombstone; incised inscription Edfu Kornfeld, AÖAW 110 (1973): 131; NESE, vol. 3, pp. 64–65 B.3.f.41
8. Edfu Storeroom Tombstone; incised inscription Edfu Kornfeld, AÖAW 110 (1973): 131–132 B.3.f.41
9. Edfu Storeroom Tombstone; incised inscription Edfu Kornfeld, AÖAW 110 (1973): 132–133 B.3.f.41
10. Edfu Storeroom Tombstone; incised inscription Edfu Kornfeld, AÖAW 110 (1973): 133; Lipiński, OLP 6–7 (1975–1976): 382ff; NESE, vol. 3, pp. 63–64 B.3.f.41
11. Edfu Storeroom Tombstone; incised inscription Edfu Kornfeld, AÖAW 110 (1973): 134 B.3.f.41
12. Edfu Storeroom Tombstone; incised inscription Edfu Kornfeld, AÖAW 110 (1973): 134–135 B.3.f.41
13. Edfu Storeroom Tombstone; incised inscription Edfu Kornfeld, AÖAW 110 (1973): 135; AÖAW 111 (1974): 376–378 B.3.f.41
14. Luxor Museum Storeroom (uncollated); Taher Sandstone; incised inscription Hagir Esna; 1971 Kornfeld, AÖAW 111 (1974): 374–376
15. Paris; personally acquired Memorial stela? Provenance unknown Aimé-Giron 110bis = Dupont-Sommer, Syria 33 (1956): 79–87 = Grelot 77 B.3.e.2

Table 12. Five Funerary Stelae, One Offering Table, One Dedication



Museum/Library Number; Acquisition Source Item Description Place and Date of Discovery Initial Publications Fitzmyer/Kaufman
1. Berlin (Gipsformerei 939); Travers; destroyed in World War II Stela; 1 register + hieroglyphic inscription + 2 registers + 4-line Aramaic inscription Saqqara; pre-1877 CIS, vol. 2.1, 122 = KAI 267 = Grelot 85 = Gibson 23 B.3.3.22
2. Brussels (Musées Royaux d'Art et d'Histoire E.4716); Jean Capart and Franz Cumont Stela Provenance unknown; 1907 RÉS 1788; Lipiński, CdÉ 50 (1975): 93–104 B.3.e.29
3. Carpentras; Rigord Stela; 2 registers + 4-line inscription Provenance unknown; 1704 CIS, vol. 2.1, 141 = KAI 269 = Grelot 86 = Gibson 24 B.3.f.18
4. Saqqara; Cecil M. Firth Fragmentary stela; 1-line inscription Saqqara; 1926? Aimé-Giron 114 = BIFAO 38 (1939): 40–43
5. Vatican XI.32.21; Charles Lenormant Stela; register + 1-line inscription + register Provenance unknown; 1860 CIS, vol. 2.1, 142 = KAI 272 B.3.f.28
6. Louvre AO 4824; F. Auguste Mariette Offering table; 4-line inscription Serapeum, Memphis; 1851 CIS, vol. 2.1, 123 - Grelot 84 = KAI 268 B.3.e.8
7. Cairo JE 36448 Sandstone stela 6-line inscription Aswan; pre-1903 RÉS 438, 1806 = Grelot 75 B.3.f.3

Table 13. Fifty-one Graffiti (arranged from north to south)



1. Giza; Imile Baraize; Egyptian Museum, Cairo, Temporary Register 29–12–28–1 1-line inscription Sphinx column drum, 1928 Aimé-Giron 90 B.3.f.19
2. Ma῾sarah; Archibald Henry Sayce Personal name, above demotic cartouche of Achoris Quarry south of Tura, 1886 RÉS 1819 B.3.f.37
3–5. Dahshur; Jacques J. M. de Morgan 3 graffiti: 1 fragment, 2 prenomina Senwosret III pyramid RÉS 1818; Aimé-Giron, p. 97, n. 1 B.3.f.36
6. Wadi Sheikh Sheikhun; Gaston Maspero and Eugène Grébaut 2-line proskynema Large boulder near wadi entrance; 1886 CIS, vol. 2.1, 134 = RÉS 1817; RAO 6 (1905): 267–270 B.3.f.29
7–16. Abydos 10 proskynemata to Osiris Seti I temple; 1868–1915 ESE, vol. 3, 103, No. Ag = RÉS 1368; ESE, vol. 3, 107, No. Al = RÉS 1364; ESE, vol. 3, 108, No. Ap = RÉS 608; ESE, vol. 3, 108, No. Aq = RÉS 1369; ESE, vol. 3, 109, No. As = RÉS 1370; ESE, vol. 3, 112, No. Bb = RÉS 1366 = Grelot 80; ESE, vol. 3, 113, No. Bf = RÉS 1373; Kornfeld, AÖAW 115 (1978): 199; ESE, vol. 3, 113, No. Bi = RÉS 1375; ESE, vol. 3, 114, No. Bk = RÉS 1376; ESE, vol. 3, 114, No. Bl = RÉS 1377 B.3.f.23
17–18. Abydos Two 4-line proskynemata (Anatolians?) (perhaps three distinct inscriptions) Seti I temple; 1868–1915 ESE, vol. 3, 103, No. Aha = RÉS 1367 = Grelot 81; ESE, vol. 3, 103, No. Ahb = RÉS 1372 = Grelot 82; Aime-Giron, p. 79; Dupont-Sommer, Annuaire (1966–1967), 119 B.3.f.23
19–24. Abydos; Ada Yardeni 4 personal names; 2 prenomina Seti I temple; 1868–1915, 1993 ESE, vol. 3, 98, No. J = RÉS 1371; ESE, vol. 3, 107, No. Am = RÉS 1363; Kornfeld, AÖAW 115 (1978): 198; ESE, vol. 3, 109, No. Ar = RÉS 1370; ESE, vol. 3, 113, No. Bh = RÉS 1374; (unlocated; perhaps illusory) CIS, vol. 2.1, 133, contra Kornfeld, AÖAW 115 (1978): 202; 1 unpublished B.3.f.23
25. Wadi Hammamat; J.-C. Goyon Abecedary Black granite; 1946 Dupont-Sommer, RA 41 (1947): 105–110 B.3.f.10
26–32. Wadi Abu Qwei; Arthur Weigall, Luisa Bongrani-Fanfoni 5 proskynemata; 2 personal names Wadi inside Wadi Hammamat; 1907, 1989 Weigall, Travels in the Upper Egyptian Deserts, Pl. 7.15; Fanfoni-Israel, Transeuphraténe 8 (1994): 81–93
33–36. Gebel Abu-Gurob; Sayce 4 personal names Between Heshan (= Hosh?) and Wadi el-Shatt er-Rigal; 1907 Sayce, PSBA 30 (1908): 28–29 (readings uncertain)
37–41. Wadi el-Shatt er-Rigal; Petrie (2); Sayce (4) 4 proskynemata Near large rock at northern entrance of wadi; 1887, c. 1890 CIS, vol. 2.1, 135, 136 = RÉS 960, 961, 962, 962 = Sayce, RT 17 (1895): 164, Nos. 5–6
42. Aswan; Sayce 3 incisions of same word Sandstone quarry Sayce, PSBA 28 (1906): 174–75
43–48. Wadi el-Hudi, Ibrahim Effendi ῾Abd el-῾Al (Cairo JE 71901) 5 proskynemata; 1 personal name Stela on hill at amethyst quarries; 1939 Aimé-Giron 124 = ASAE 39 (1939): 351–363 B.3.f.20
49–50. Tomas; Weigall 2 personal names Sandstone; 1906–1907 Weigall, Report on the Antiquities of Lower Nubia, 113 + Pl. 64.6; Aimé-Giron 92–93 B.3.f.1.2–3
51. Unknown; Henry Salt; bought by W.T. Ready, 20 June 1899 Prenomen incised Royal dedicatory stela; provenance unknown; pre-1836 CIS, vol. 2.1, 143 = RÉS 490 B.3.f.17

Tables 14–15. Chronological List of the Discovery of Ostraca and Jar Inscriptions

Table 14. Ostraca. Thirty-four separate finds or acquisitions between 1875 and 1988



Dates Item Site Discoverer/Acquirer Museum/Library Editio Princeps Fitzmyer-Kaufman
1. 1875 (1889) Fragmentary letter Elephantine Greville Chester British Museum, London CIS, vol. 2.1, 138 B.3.c.28
2. 1876 (1889) Fragmentary letter Elephantine Chester London CIS, vol. 2.1, 139 B.3.c.48 APE 95
3. pre-1880 (1915) 2 fragmentary letters Elephantine Friedrich Mook Staatliche Sammlung Ägyptische Kunst, Munich Mark Lidzbarski B.3.c.24–25
4. 1886 (1887) Dream letter Elephantine Adolf Erman Staatliche Museen, Berlin Julius Euting B.3.c.47
5. 1888–1889 (1889) 2 lists Elephantine Vladimir S. Golénischeff Pushkin Museum, Moscow CIS, vol. 2.1, 154–155 B.3.c.39–40
6. 1897 (1906) Fragmentary letter Elephantine Ludwig Borchardt Berlin Archibald Henry Sayce, Arthur Ernest Cowley B.3.c.42/48 APO 77/1
7. 1897 Unknown Oxyrhynchus Columbia University Unpublished
8. 1900–1901 (1903) 4 letters Elephantine Sayce Bodleian Library, Oxford (on permanent loan to the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford) Cowley B.3.c.29, 36–37, 48 APE 93
9. 1902 (1909, 1915) 2 letters (barley, marzeah), 1 fragmentary list Elephantine Egyptian Museum, Cairo Sayce, Lidzbarski B.3.c.33–32
10. 1905 (1911) 2 letters Elephantine Otto Rubensohn Berlin Eduard Sachau B.3.c.21,23
11. 1905–1906 (1911) 1 fragmentary letter; 3 accounts Edfu Carl Schmidt Berlin Sachau B3.f.33.1–4
12. 1906 (1969) 1 fragmentary letter Elephantine? London Judah Benzion Segal B3.c.35
13. 1906 (1991) 1 letter; 1 list Elephantine? Rustafjaell sale at Sotheby's auction London Bezalel Porten, Ada Yardeni
14. 1906–1908 (1911) 23 ostraca Elephantine Rubensohn, Friedrich Zucker Berlin; Cairo Sachau B3.c.22,41, 43, 48
15. Unknown 1 list; 6 letters Elephantine Unknown Berlin Unpublished
16. 1907–1909 (1944, 1945, 1948, 1949, 1957, 1963, 1971, 1989) 256? ostraca Elephantine Charles Clermont-Ganneau, Jean Clédat, Henri Gauthier Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, Paris André Dupont-Sommer, Hélène Lozachmeur B.3.c.33
17. pre-1908 (1915) 2 accounts; 1 letter Edfu? Bibliothèque Nationale et Universitaire, Strasbourg Lidzbarski B.3.c.44–46
18. pre-1911 (1911) Passover letter Elephantine Sayce Bodleian Library, Oxford (on permanent loan to the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford) Sayce B.3.c.20
19. 1911 (1978) 2 accounts; 2 letters 3 Edfu?; 1 Elephantine Hermann Junker Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Vienna Rainer Degen B.3.c.19f.40
20. 1912 (1913) Account Kom el-Ahmar Raymond Weil Louvre Raymond Weill
21. 1914 Fragmentary letter Unknown Sayce Bodleian Library, Oxford (on permanent loan to the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford) Unpublished
22. 1924 (1926) Fragmentary letter Elephantine Cairo Noel Aimé-Giron B.3.c.27
23. 1925 (1926) Tunic letter Elephantine Cairo Aimé-Giron B.3.c.28
24. pre-1926 (1926) Fragmentary letter Elephantine Cairo Aimé-Giron B.c.3.48. Aimé-Giron
25. pre-1927 Tax receipt Edfu? Wilhelm Spiegelberg Lost Lidzbarski B.3.f.32
26. pre-1929 (1929) Letter to Kaviliah Elephantine Herbert Thompson Cambridge University Library Cowley B.3.c.34
27. 1933 (1939) Fragmentary account Edfu Pierre Lacau Cairo Aimé-Giron B.3.f.33.6
28. 1933 (1991) Account Edfu? Carl Wessely estate Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Vienna Porten and Yardeni
29. 1937 (1939) Account Edfu French-Polish excavations Cairo Aimé-Giron B.3.f.33.7
30. 1966–1973 Abecedary North Saqqara Egypt Exploration Society Cairo? Judah Benzion Segal B.3.e.25
31. pre-1977 (1977) Abecedary Elephantine? Pontifical Biblical Institute, Jerusalem André Lemaire, Hélène Lozachmeur B.3.c.26
32. 1978 List Elephantine German Archaeological Institute Elephantine Storeroom, Aswan unpublished
33. 1979 Letter Elephantine German Archaeological Institute Elephantine Storeroom, Aswan Mohammed Maraqten
34. 1988 List Elephantine German Archaeological Institute Elephantine Storeroom, Aswan unpublished

Table 15. Jar Inscriptions. Nine separate finds or acquisitions between 1906 and 1979



1. 1906–1908 (1911) 14 jar Inscriptions Elephantine Otto Rubensohn Staatliche Museen, Berlin; Egyptian Museum, Cairo Eduard Sachau B.3.c.49
2. Unknown 1 jar inscription Elephantine Unknown Berlin Unpublished
3. 1907 (1911) 2 jar inscriptions Abu Sir (Memphis) Ludwig Borchardt Berlin Sachau
4. 1911 (1931) 1 jar inscription Saqqara Unknown Cairo Noel Aimé-Giron B.3.e.1
4a. Unknown (1939) Potter's mark South Saqqara Cecil Mallaby Firth Cairo Aimé-Giron Omitted (not Aramaic)
5. 1978–1979 Potter's mark Saqqara Edda Bresciani Bresciani B.3.f.9
6. 1929 (1931) 1 jar inscription Edfu Pierre Lacau Cairo Aimé-Giron B.3.f.33.5
7. 1966–1973 2 jar inscriptions; 2 potter's marks North Saqqara Egypt Exploration Society Saqqara Storeroom Judah Benzion Segal B.3.e.25
8. pre-1987 2 jar inscriptions Elephantine German Archaeological Institute Elephantine Storeroom Mohammed Maraqten
9. 1979 2 jar inscriptions Elephantine German Archaeological Institute Elephantine Storeroom Maraqten

[See also Aramaic language and Literature; Elephantine; Giza; Oxyrhynchus; and Saqqara.]

Bibliography

  • Aimé-Giron, Noël. Textes araméens d'Égypte. Cairo, 1931. Publication of 112 items (papyri, sarcophagi, graffiti, mummy labels) discovered by French expeditions, mostly at Saqqara. Contains a valuable introduction and topical treatments, although readings must be checked against later publications.
  • Aimé-Giron, Noël. “Adversaria semitica.” Bulletin de l'Institut Français d'Archéologie Orientale 38 (1939): 1–63. Corrigenda and continuation of Textes (1931), from nos. 113 to 121 (new material from Saqqara and Edfu).
  • Aimé-Giron, Noël. “Adversaria semitica.” Annales du Service des Antiquités de l'Égypte 39 (1939): 339–363. Continuation of “Adversaria semitica” from numbers 122 to 124 (unique graffiti from Wadi el-Hudi).
  • Bresciani, Edda. Missione di scavo a Medinet Madi (Fayum-Egitto). Milan, 1968.
  • Bresciani, Edda. “Una statuina fittile con inscrizione aramaica dell'-Egitto.” In Hommages à André Dupont-Sommer, pp. 5–8. Paris, 1971.
  • Corpus inscriptionum semiticarum. Part 2.1. Paris, 1888–1893. Publication of all known Aramaic texts to date (funerary stelae, graffiti, ostraca, papyri, seals), with valuable plates and a commentary in Latin.
  • Cowley, Arthur E. Aramaic Papyri of the Fifth Century B.C. Oxford, 1923. The most convenient collection of all papyri published to that date. Readings must be checked against later publications.
  • Driver, Godfrey R. Aramaic Documents of the Fifth Century B.C. Oxford, 1954. Superb publication of parchment letters sent from outside Egypt to satrapal officials, with excellent full-size plates. Abridged and revised (without plates) In 1957 and 1965.
  • Dupont-Sommer, André. “Un ostracon araméen inédit d'Éléphantine (Collection Clermont-Ganneau no. 44).” In Hebrew and Semitic Studies Presented to G. R. Driver, edited by D. Winton Thomas and W. D. McHardy, pp. 53–58. Oxford, 1963.
  • Ebers, Georg. The Hellenic Portraits from the Fayum. New York, 1893.
  • Fitzmyer, Joseph A., and Stephen A. Kaufman. An Aramaic Bibliography, part 1, Old, Official, and Biblical Aramaic. Baltimore and London, 1992. Complete listing of all texts and extensive bibliography for each. Classification according to TAD sigla where available; otherwise classification is cumbersome.
  • Greenfield, Jonas C., and Bezalel Porten. The Bisitun Inscription of Darius the Great: Aramaic Version. Corpus Inscriptionum Iranicarum, part 1, vol. 5: Texts 1. London, 1982. New edition with restored text, with a comparison to the Akkadian version and papyrological treatment. Minor revisions in TAD C2.1.
  • Grelot, Pierre. Documents araméens d'Égypte. Paris, 1972. French annotated translation of 109 texts, including papyri, ostraca, and other small inscriptions, plus an elaborate onomastic treatise.
  • Hinz, Walther. Altiranisches Sprachgut der Nebenüberlieferungen. Wiesbaden, 1975.
  • Kraeling, Emil G. Brooklyn Museum Aramaic Papyri: New Documents of the Fifth Century B.C. from the Jewish Colony in Elephantine. New Haven, 1953. Publication of the Anani(ah) family archive discovered In 1893 by Charles Edwin Wilbour, with a comprehensive introduction. Readings must be checked against later publications.
  • Naveh, Joseph. “The Development of the Aramaic Script.” Proceedings of the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities 5 (1970): 21–43. Basic work for palaeographical dating of all Aramaic texts.
  • Parlasca, Klaus. Mumienporträts und verwandte Denkmäler. Wiesbaden, 1966.
  • Petrie, W. M. Flinders. The Palace of Apries (Memphis II). London, 1909.
  • Porten, Bezalel. Archives from Elephantine: The Life of an Ancient Jewish Military Colony. Berkeley, 1968. The most comprehensive synthesis of the material. A thoroughly revised edition (Brill) is planned for 1998. The treatment of legal topics is updated in joint studies by Porten and Szubin.
  • Porten, Bezalel, and H. Z. Szubin. “‘Abandoned Property’ in Elephantine: A New Interpretation of Kraeling 3.” Journal of Near Eastern Studies 41 (1982): 123–131.
  • Porten, Bezalel, and H. Z. Szubin. “Exchange of Inherited Property at Elephantine (Cowley 1).” Journal of the American Oriental Society 102 (1982): 651–654.
  • Porten, Bezalel, and H. Z. Szubin. “Litigation Concerning Abandoned Property at Elephantine (Kraeling 1).” Journal of Near Eastern Studies 42 (1983): 279–284.
  • Porten, Bezalel. “The Jews in Egypt.” In The Cambridge History of Judaism, vol. 1, edited by W. D. Davies and Louis Finkelstein, pp. 372–400. Cambridge, 1984. Update of Porten (1968), with basic bibliography.
  • Porten, Bezalel, and H. Z. Szubin. “Hereditary Leases in Aramaic Letters.” Bibliotheca Orientalis 42 (1985): 283–288.
  • Porten, Bezalel, and Ada Yardeni. Textbook of Ancient Aramaic Documents from Ancient Egypt (TAD A, B, C). 3 vols. Jerusalem, 1986–1993. The most up-to-date collection of Egyptian Aramaic papyri and parchments, including letters (TAD A), contracts (TAD B), literature, accounts, and lists (TAD C), with detailed excurses. Each text is newly collated at the source and reproduced in hand-copy. TAD D is in preparation and will include papyrus and parchment fragments and inscriptions on material other than papyrus.
  • Porten, Bezalel, and H. Z. Szubin. “A Dowry Addendum (Kraeling 10).” Journal of the American Oriental Society 107 (1987): 231–238.
  • Porten, Bezalel, and H. Z. Szubin. “Litigants in the Elephantine Contracts: The Development of Legal Terminology.” Maarav 4 (1987): 45–67.
  • Porten, Bezalel, and H. Z. Szubin. “Royal Grants in Egypt: A New Interpretation of Driver 2.” Journal of Near Eastern Studies 46 (1987): 39–48.
  • Porten, Bezalel, and H. Z. Szubin. “An Aramaic Deed of Bequest (Kraeling 9).” In Community and Culture, edited by Nahum M. Waldman, pp. 179–192. Philadelphia, 1987.
  • Porten, Bezalel. “The Calendar of Aramaic Texts from Achaemenid and Ptolemaic Egypt.” In Irano-Judaica, vol. 2, Studies Relating to Jewish Contacts with Persian Culture throughout the Ages, edited by Shaul Shaked and Amnon Netzer, pp. 13–32. Jerusalem, 1990. Detailed examination of every date, with discussion of dating patterns in contracts, letters, and accounts, and synchronous Babylonian-Egyptian dates.
  • Porten, Bezalel. “Elephantine Papyri.” In The Anchor Bible Dictionary, vol. 2, pp. 445–455. New York, 1992. Detailed survey of discovery and contents of all Elephantine papyri, with an elaborate bibliography.
  • Répertoire d'épigraphie sémitique. Paris, 1901–1917. Most convenient single collection of nonpapyrological epigraphic material for those years.
  • Sachau, Eduard. Aramäische Papyrus und Ostraka aus einer jüdischen Militärkolonie zu Elephantine. Leipzig, 1911. Publication of seventy-five papyrus items and numerous inscriptions on shards, jars, wood, stone, and leather, mostly from the 1906–1908 Elephantine excavations by Rubensohn and Zucker. Indispensable plates.
  • Sayce, A. H., and Arthur E. Cowley. Aramaic Papyri Discovered at Assuan. London, 1906. Mibtahiah archive plus several ostraca. Contains full-size plates and an excellent bibliography of all Aramaic texts to date by Seymour de Ricci. Readings must be checked against later publications.
  • Segal, Judah B. Aramaic Texts from North Saqqâra. London, 1983. Publication of 202 papyrus items and 26 Aramaic and Phoenician ostraca found by Walter Emery (1966–1967) and Geoffrey Martin (1971–1973). Elaborate apparatus but disappointing plates. Readings must be checked against reviews and later publications. New collation essential.
  • Szubin, H. Z., and Bezalel Porten. “‘Ancestral Estates’ in Aramaic Contracts: The Legal Significance of the Term mhḥsn.Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland (1982): 3–9.
  • Szubin, H. Z., and Bezalel Porten. “Testamentary Succession at Elephantine.” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, no. 252 (1983): 35–46.
  • Szubin, H. Z., and Bezalel Porten. “A Life Estate of Usufruct: A New Interpretation of Kraeling 6.” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, no. 269 (1988): 29–45.
  • Szubin, H. Z., and Bezalel Porten. “An Aramaic Joint Venture Agreement: A New Interpretation of the Bauer-Meissner Papyrus.” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, no. 288 (1992): 67–84.
  • Weigall, Arthur E. P. A Report on the Antiquities of Lower Nubia. Oxford, 1907.
  • Weigall, Arthur E. P. Travels in the Upper Egyptian Deserts. London, 1909.

Bezalel Porten