(1881–1972),

member of the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey, and excavator of Tarsus, in southern Turkey. Born in New York City, Goldman received a bachelor's degree from Bryn Mawr College In 1903 and a master's degree in classical language and archaeology from Radcliffe In 1910. From 1910 to 1912 she attended the American School of Classical Studies in Athens, which sponsored her excavations at Halae, a small classical and prehistoric village in central Greece. During the excavation her interests shifted to prehistory and she made the necropolis at Halae the subject of her Ph.D. dissertation, also from Radcliffe (1916). In 1922 Goldman began excavating Colophon in Ionia, western Greece, sponsored by the Fogg Museum of Harvard University; and from 1924 to 1927 she excavated at Eutresis in Boeotia, also in central Greece. She was appointed a professor at the Institute for Advanced Study In 1936.

Goldman's most important contribution to Near Eastern archaeology was the result of her last excavation, Gözlü Kule, in Tarsus, carried out under the auspices of Bryn Mawr College, Harvard University, and the Archaeological Institute of America. She directed the excavations between 1934 and 1939 and resumed them after World War II from 1947 to 1948. Having selected Tarsus for its potential as a link between east and west, Goldman identified interconnections with Troy and the Aegean region in pottery as early as Early Bronze Age III (c. 2500 BCE). She also identified evidence for interaction with Mycenaeans or “Sea Peoples” in the pottery of the end of the Late Bronze Age (c. 1200 BCE). The recovery of tablets, inscribed seal impressions, and seals dating to the Hittite period revealed the historical importance of Tarsus and its interaction with the Hittite Empire. The meticulous care she gave to excavation, recording, analysis, and publication of finds and architecture allowed Goldman and later scholars to produce the only reliable stratigraphic sequence for Cilicia from the Neolithic to the Roman period (Goldman, 1956–1963). The Tarsus volumes are still used as a standard reference in comparative dating of Anatolian and North Syrian sites, particularly for the Bronze and Iron Ages.

Bibliography

  • Goldman, Hetty, and John Garstang. “A Conspectus of Early Cilician Pottery.” American Journal of Archaeology 51 (1947): 370–388.
  • Goldman, Hetty, ed. Excavations at Gözlü Kule, Tarsus, vol. 1, The Hellenistic and Roman Periods; vol. 2, From the Neolithic Period through the Bronze Age; vol. 3, The Iron Age. Princeton, 1950–1963.
  • Mellink, Machteld J. “Goldman, Hetty.” In Notable American Woman, edited by Barbara Sicherman and Carol Hurd Green, pp. 280–282. Cambridge, 1980.

Bonnie Magness-Gardiner