(1906–1936), Palestinian

archaeologist

born in Ilanya (Sejera, 13 km, or 8 mi., west-southwest of Tiberias), the first daughter of Eliyahu Krause and Ḥaya (née Ḥankin). Marquet-Krause spent her early childhood in Sejera before the family's move in 1914, to the Miqweh-Israel agricultural school, east of Jaffa, where her father became director. She received her secondary education in Tel Aviv and subsequently studied in Paris, at the Sorbonne, the École des Hautes Études, and the École du Louvre, where she acquainted herself with Palestinian archaeology. On her return to Palestine she worked for a season at Jericho under John Garstang.

Her broad knowledge of Oriental archaeology and command of ancient and modern languages, as well as her enthusiasm and energy, brought her the appointment of director of the Baron Edmond de Rothschild Expedition to Ai (et-Tell). She conducted three seasons of excavation there (1933–1935), establishing that the site had been destroyed and abandoned more than a millennium before the Israelite settlement, and that a small, unfortified village had existed there in the Early Iron Age. These discoveries demonstrated that the account in Joshua 7:2–5 and 8:1–29 was an “etiological” legend. The excavations also revealed very important remains from the Early Bronze Age IC–IIIB (3000–2400 BCE): a palace (perhaps originally a temple), a temple that yielded a rich and important assortment of cult objects and Egyptian First Dynasty alabaster vessels, and fortifications that included an elliptical tower and postern. Her excavation of the cemetery recovered significant assemblages of EB pottery.

Judith Marquet-Krause's death from an incurable illness ended the short career of a very promising young scholar. She had planned to excavate at Ai for a few more seasons and then to turn her attention to Hazor. She was the first native Jewish archaeologist in Palestine, the first local woman archaeologist, and the director of the first large-scale expedition carried out by a Jewish team in Palestine.

[See also Ai; Jericho; and the biography of Garstang.]

Bibliography

  • Callaway, Joseph A. “Ai.” In The New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land, vol. 1, pp. 39–45. Jerusalem and New York, 1993.
    Summary of the excavations at Ai, with a useful coordination of Marquet-Krause's results and subsequent excavations at the site
    .
  • Dussaud, René. “Mme Judith Marquet-Krause.” Syria 17 (1936): 319–320.
    Obituary, with an incorrect birthdate
    .
  • Marquet-Krause, Judith. Les fouilles de ῾Ay (Et-Tell), 1933–1935. 2 vols. Paris, 1949.

Dan Barag