Ancient Hippos was built on the crest of Sussita Mountain, which is situated about 1.2 miles (2 km) east of the Sea of Galilee (the Lake of Tiberias or Kinneret) and stands detached from the southwestern slopes of the Golan Heights. Its Greek name Hippos (“horse”) and its Aramaic name Sussita (“mare”) refer to the shape of the mountain, and this is also reflected in its modern Arabic name, Qalʿat el-Husn (“fortress of the horse”). The flat mountaintop is rectangular in shape and situated at a height of 472 ft (144 m) above sea level or about 1,150 ft (350 m) above the level of the lake. The highest point of the mountain is its eastern part, from which the surface gradually declines westward. The northern slopes of the mountain are especially steep, with the Ein-Gev Stream running along the bottom in a deep and inaccessible channel. The southern slope is slightly more moderate than the northern one, with the Sussita Stream flowing at its foot. The slope on the west side descends very steeply toward the lake, and it is only on the eastern side that the saddle ridge allows for easy ascent to the mountain.

Description of the Site.

Sussita Mountain can be ascended by two routes. The western route winds upward along a snake-like road on the steep and rocky slope to overcome the 1,150 ft (350 m) difference in height, while the route leading up from the east is gradual and easy to climb. On the summit, a fairly flat plateau slopes gradually downward from east to west, which made it eminently suitable for building a city. From an archaeological viewpoint, this site is unique in comparison with other ancient sites, such as Jerusalem, Caesarea, Beth-Shean, and Gerasa. Ever since its abandonment in the middle of the eighth century C.E., the city of Hippos-Sussita has never been repopulated. Moreover, since the mountain of Sussita and the surrounding area were designated a national park, no buildings were erected on it and the land features remained unaltered. Even the agricultural hinterland, the road network, the aqueducts, and the two cemeteries nearby were unmarred by any modern development. Thus, not only did Hippos-Sussita retain the urban character it had at the end of the Roman-Byzantine period, but its nearby surroundings have also been left unaltered by time.

Research History.

The first researcher who surveyed the city was the engineer Gottlieb Schumacher, who visited the site in 1885 and gave a fairly detailed description of the remains of ancient buildings. Significant is the urban plan of Hippos-Sussita that he drew, which clearly marked the main street that traversed the entire length of the city from east to west. It also indicated sections of the city fortifications surrounding the mountaintop. When Kibbutz Ein Gev was founded in 1937 a few surveys were conducted on Sussita Mountain. At the beginning of the 1950s, the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) set up a border outpost on the site, and its construction caused considerable damage to several ancient structures. In addition to communication trenches, firing positions, and ammunition stores, two permanent buildings were erected on the mountaintop to house the soldiers of the outpost. While the southern building was being constructed, a large church (possibly the Cathedral) was partially exposed. This is one of the eight Byzantine-period churches in the city which have so far been discovered. At the beginning of the 1990s, a team of Israeli and German researchers conducted a study of the water-supply system.

Since the year 2000, annual summer excavation seasons have been conducted at the site by an international team representing three research institutions. Heading the team are Professor Arthur Segal and Dr. Michael Eisenberg of the Zinman Institute of Archaeology at the University of Haifa. Codirectors of the excavation are Prof. Jolanta Młynarczyk of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw, Dr. Mariusz Burdajewicz of the National Museum in Warsaw, and Prof. Mark Schuler of Concordia University in St. Paul, Minnesota. Annual reports of these excavation seasons are published by the Zinman Institute of Archaeology. Since the mountain of Sussita is included within the area of the Sussita National Park, the excavation project receives substantial assistance from the National Parks Authority in Israel, and the excavating team is also bolstered by volunteers from Kibbutz Ein Gev and various youth organizations in Israel.

Historical and Archaeological Evidence.

The archaeological finds and the historical evidence, especially the Greek name of the city, Antiochia Hippos, all testify that this city was founded in the first half of the second century B.C.E., probably during the reign of Antiochus IV Epiphanes (r. 175–164 B.C.E.). The pottery and numismatic finds discovered during the excavation of the Hellenistic Compound confirm that at the end of the third century B.C.E., under Ptolemaic rule, a modest settlement had already existed there. Hippos-Sussita is mentioned in very few historical sources. In 83 B.C.E., Alexander Jannaeus (r. 103–76 B.C.E.) conquered the city; but Hasmonean rule was soon exchanged for Roman rule in 63 B.C.E. when Pompey swept across the region, abolished the Seleucid Empire, and incorporated all the Greek cities on the eastern bank of the Jordan River within Provincia Syria. Hippos-Sussita and the other cities of the Decapolis then began dating the years according to the Pompeian Era, beginning with 63 B.C.E., indicating that for the Greek cities in this area the Roman conquest was a major and decisive event. Evidence for Hippos-Sussita as a Gentile city with a Jewish minority can be found both in the Jerusalem Talmud (Ketubbot 12:4) and in the Babylonian Talmud (Rosh HaShanah 2:1). The New Testament contains stories about the activities of Jesus in the area surrounding the Sea of Galilee: “Then he returned from the region of Tyre, and went by way of Sidon towards the Sea of Galilee, in the region of the Decapolis” (Mark 7:31). Jewish sources of the Byzantine period mention a number of Jewish villages in the vicinity of the city (t. Šeb. 4:10, אOhal. 18:4). The relations between Jewish Tiberias and Gentile Sussita facing each other on opposite sides of the Sea of Galilee were those of trade and competition (Lamentations Rab., 46a) and of political enmity. When the Great Revolt broke out in 66 C.E., the Jews attacked Hippos-Sussita (Josephus, J.W. 2.459, 478).

The Decapolis Cities.

Josephus (Ant. 14.76) and Pliny the Elder (Nat. 5.16, 74) mention the Decapolis, 10 Greek cities (poleis) which were located on the east bank of the Jordan River, except Beth-Shean (Scythopolis), which was placed on the west bank. These cities created a broad-ranging settlement bloc extending from Hippos-Sussita in the north to Philadelphia (today Amman, the capital of the Kingdom of Jordan) in the south and from Beth-Shean in the west to Hippos and Kanawat in the north. The cities of the Decapolis were run according to the principles of a Greek polis and constituted an entity of Grecian-Hellenistic culture within an area populated mainly by Semitic peoples. The Decapolis cities did not form a league (συμμαχία) such as the Delian League in Athens of the fifth century B.C.E., but their pride in being poleis and their attachment to Greek culture were clearly expressed when the emperor Augustus expanded the kingdom of Herod the Great, the king of Judea (r. 37–4 B.C.E.), to include Gadara and Hippos-Sussita. This aroused the resentment of their citizens, who wished to remain in the area of Provincia Syria (Josephus, Ant. 16.217). After Herod’s death, these cities reverted to Provincia Syria.

Like the rest of the Decapolis cities, Hippos-Sussita flourished and prospered during the period of “Roman Peace” (Pax Romana), which brought tranquillity, open borders, and wide-ranging trade relations. It was well supplied by the agricultural hinterland, was engaged in the oil and wine industries, and maintained its own port anchorage on the lakeshore for trade purposes and for the fishing fleet. The wealth of the citizens during this period is expressed in the extensive construction work that took place in it. Most of the public buildings were apparently erected between the end of the first century and the beginning of the third century C.E. as an expression of urban pride and loyalty to the Roman emperors. Fate smiled upon it even during the Byzantine period (fourth to seventh centuries C.E.) when the city was included within the area of Palaestina Secunda, the northernmost of the three administrative districts in the Byzantine period. Byzantine sources relate that Hippos-Sussita served as the seat of a bishop. The eight churches discovered within the city area confirm that the process of Christianization from the fourth century C.E. onward was rapid and intense and that by the sixth century C.E. most of its inhabitants were Christians.

Shape and Plan of the City.

The shape and plan of Hippos-Sussita conform to the contours of the mountaintop on which it was built and which determined its irregular rectangular shape. Its longitudinal axis was directed east–west, its length was about 1,800 ft (550 m), and its maximum width was about 720 ft (220 m). The city, with an area of about 21.3 acres (8.6 ha), was enclosed by a wall that followed the line of the natural cliffs surrounding the top of the mountain, the total perimeter measuring about 5,085 ft (1,550 m). The city had two main gates, one located at the eastern end overlooking the saddle ridge and the other at the western end facing the Sea of Galilee. Excavations show that the urban plan was clearly orthogonal, which means that its streets intersected at right angles to form rectangular or square city blocks (insulae) enclosing public buildings and residential quarters.

Walls and gates.

The city was surrounded by a solid wall built of basalt ashlars. Except for a few sections that collapsed into the valleys around the mountain, the course of the city wall is distinctly visible on the surface. The builders made a real effort to mount it exactly upon the line of the cliffs surrounding the mountaintop. In most cases, the first course of ashlars was laid directly upon the leveled rock surface; and wherever the rock surface did not allow this, a foundation of rubble mixed with binding material was laid to support the first course. Along the city wall, at irregular intervals, a number of square or rectangular towers were erected. A few sections of the southern wall have been exposed. A typological analysis of the wall ashlars and of the way in which the stones were dressed and the courses were laid, as well as the pottery and numismatic finds, all confirm that the earliest stage of construction was at the end of the Hellenistic period, between the second half of the second century and the beginning of the first century B.C.E. From then onward and throughout the Roman, Byzantine, and Umayyad periods, the city wall was constantly being renovated and repaired, sometimes with building materials in secondary use such as capitals, column drums, and ashlars that must have once belonged to monumental structures of the Roman period.

The city had two gates. The west gate at the western end of the Decumanus Maximus is badly preserved and has not been excavated; but the east gate at its eastern end was excavated, and in spite of its partial preservation, its plan may be reconstructed. This gate, located on the edge of the plateau above the rocky slope facing the saddle ridge, had one passageway about 10 ft (3 m) wide, with towers standing on either side of the gate front. Of the northern tower, which was square (11.5 by 11.5 ft [3.5 by 3.5 m]), hardly anything remains; but a few of the lower courses of the southern tower, which was round, have remained and allow for its reconstruction. The southern tower was integrated with the city wall, and together they created a defensive formation that controlled entry into the city from the east. The tower was solidly built of well-dressed basalt ashlars with an external diameter of about 26.3 ft (8 m) and may have originally risen to a height of three stories. It was designed in a manner typical of the Late Hellenistic period so that missile launchers could be placed in each story to shoot at an enemy approaching with siege machines along the only possible route, across the saddle ridge in the east. On the basis of a typological analysis and comparison with the gates excavated in nearby Tiberias and Gadara, the east gate of Hippos-Sussita was apparently built in the first century C.E.

Street network.

The main street of the city, the Decumanus Maximus, traverses its entire length from east to west for a distance of about 1,800 ft (550 m). This is a colonnaded street with columns placed along both the north and south sides. The course of the street begins at the east gate; breaks off at midpoint where the forum, the central public plaza of the city, was located; and then continues onward toward the west gate. The exposure of sections of two cardines, the north–south streets that intersected the Decumanus Maximus at right angles, confirms that the urban plan was an orthogonal one. A careful study of aerial photographs, especially those taken by the British Royal Air Force during the 1940s prior to the IDF construction and fortification work on the site, shows that the number of cardines was greater than previously assumed. A precise analysis of the urban street network based only on a study of the aerial photographs is naturally problematic, and the damage caused by the IDF at the beginning of the 1950s made it very difficult to reconstruct this network. As excavation work progresses, it will be possible to add and mark additional streets on the city map.

Public Areas and Buildings.

The orthogonal plan of Hippos was clear and well suited to the topography of the mountain summit. The Decumanus Maximus that crossed through it from east to west constituted its main axis along which most of the public complexes were erected. Many of these were built around the forum that was located in the center of the city and that interrupted the Decumanus Maximus midway in its course.

Decumanus Maximus.

About 787.4 ft (240 m) of the main colonnaded street, the Decumanus Maximus, have been excavated. The street, which extends from the forum in the direction of the east gate, was 13.8 ft (4.2 m) wide. It was paved carefully with basalt flagstones placed obliquely and lined on both sides by monolithic columns made of gray granite, originating in Aswan, Egypt. The scores of columns that once stood along the street and lay strewn upon its surface were of uniform measurement with a height of 15 ft (4.6 m), a base diameter of 2 ft (0.6 m), and a weight of about 4.1 tons (3.7 metric tons). The columns were mounted on Attic bases that were not placed directly upon the stylobate but on low pedestals. The bases and pedestals were made of basalt, while the Corinthian capitals were of white marble.

Forum.

The forum, a rectangular plaza in the center of the city measuring 147.6 by 137.8 ft (45 by 42 m), was carefully paved with basalt flagstones. The colonnades along the eastern and northern sides of this plaza were arranged in the form of the Greek letter Γ. A number of column shafts scattered across the surface of the forum give clear evidence of the powerful earthquake that toppled them in 749 C.E. The column shafts, made of gray granite, were crowned with Corinthian capitals and mounted on Attic bases. Both the capitals and the bases were made of white marble. The columns were not placed directly upon the stylobates but on high pedestals made of high-quality limestone. A well-preserved stairway in the southern part of the plaza led to an underground water reservoir roofed with an impressive barrel vault. This reservoir, measuring 29.5 by 19.7 by 65.6 ft (9 by 6 by 20 m), has survived almost undamaged.

Kalybe, bathhouse, and other structures.

On the western side of the forum two structures stood side by side. The southern one was an open, exedra-like structure (length of front facing the forum 62.3 ft [19 m]), in the middle of which was a semicircular niche roofed with a half-dome. This structure apparently served as a kalybe, a temple for the imperial cult. The lower part of this monumental structure has been well preserved, but very little remains of the building to the north of this temple. It seems to have been a structure resembling a decorative gate that marked the point of transition from the forum to the western section of the Decumanus Maximus. A similar decorative gate was erected at the western end of the Decumanus Maximus, in the section that extends between the east gate of the city and the forum. The eastern side of the forum was bordered by a bathhouse complex that has not been excavated. The sizeable dimensions of this complex, with an open swimming pool (natatio) clearly visible in the center, confirm that it covered the area of a complete city block (insula). Another bathhouse, located in the vicinity of the southern city wall, has been partially excavated.

An unexpected find exposed here was the head of a sculpted stucco relief of Hercules. In Roman times the bathhouse was a center for bodily improvement and athletic exercises, and the figure of Hercules as the symbol of physical strength frequently decorated its walls.

Hellenistic compound (temenos).

The forum is bordered on the north by a long and impressive wall (151 ft [46 m]) built of basalt ashlars with dressed margins and rough central bosses, five courses of which remain arranged in a regular pattern of headers and stretchers. This method of construction is typical of the Hellenistic period (third to first centuries B.C.E.). The wall is the southern wall of a large compound that has only been partially exposed. Except for a few sections of the city wall, these are the only building remains that can be dated with a high degree of certainty to the Hellenistic period. A plaza exposed in the southern part of the compound was carefully paved with rectangular limestone slabs and surrounded by colonnades arranged in a U-shaped formation. The bases and column drums were also made of limestone. The location, size, and construction methods of the compound all confirm that this was the main sanctuary (temenos) of the Hellenistic city, which continued to function in its original capacity during the Roman period.

Over the ruins of the Hellenistic temple, of which only a few architectural items were found on the site, a Roman temple was erected at the end of the first century B.C.E. (during the reign of Augustus Caesar [r. 27 B.C.E.–14 C.E.]). The huge limestone ashlars reused in the Byzantine North-West Church must have been removed from the Hellenistic temple. As for the Augustan temple, many more of its remains were found in situ, including the lower section of a stairway (scalaria; 32.8 ft [10 m] in length), placed between two terminating walls (antae), as well as many architectural items made of basalt and even sections of the podium walls. These sections were incorporated in the foundations of the North-West Church erected over the ruins of the Roman temple. This deliberate erection of a church on the remains of a pagan temple proclaimed the victory of Christianity over paganism.

Basilica.

The basilica, a public building found in all Roman cities and usually erected near the forum, may be defined as a sheltered alternative to it. The forum serves as an open plaza for conducting the social, administrative, and economic activities of the citizens. In bad weather conditions, the basilica offers a convenient refuge in a spacious and roofed building. The basilica in Hippos-Sussita was an impressive building measuring 98.4 by 180.4 ft (30 by 55 m) built of ashlars, constructed at the end of the first or the beginning of the second century C.E. It was rectangular in shape, its lengthwise axis was north–south, and it stood in the northeastern corner of the forum. The three doorways in its short south wall facing the forum provided easy access between forum and basilica. The rows of columns standing parallel to the four walls of the basilica supported the roof and created a nave with four aisles. The interior sides of the walls were decorated with stucco pilasters embedded opposite each column to break the monotony of the large wall surfaces. The inner space of the basilica was painted with fairly strong colors in shades of red, blue, and orange. The architectural items that were exposed among the basilica ruins, such as column drums, Corinthian capitals, friezes, and bases, all indicate excellent workmanship. The walls, columns, and capitals were made of basalt; but some architectural items were of marble.

Odeion.

The name of this entertainment structure, which derives from the Greek word ode (“song”), is confusing because odeion (in Greek) and odeum (in Latin) refer to a specifically Roman structure. The most ancient odeion known is the first-century B.C.E. one in Pompeii. The odeion can be defined simply as a small, roofed, theater-like building for more intimate events than the staging of plays, for example, poetry readings with musical accompaniment, intended for a much smaller, select, and refined audience. The very existence of an odeion in Hippos-Sussita shows that the city was home to an educated population with a desire for high-quality cultural events and a love for Greek classical poetry. During the early centuries of the Common Era, Greek and Roman tragedies and comedies were gradually replaced on the stage by mimes and pantomimes appealing to the vulgar masses. The fact that Hippos-Sussita had an odeion indicates an affinity of the urban elite for classical culture. This semicircular building was located about 262.5 ft (80 m) to the west of the forum with a north–south axis of 88.6 ft (27 m) and an east–west axis of 69 ft (21 m).

The building consists of two main parts: (1) a rectangular stage structure (scaena), with the stage (Greek, logeion; Latin, pulpitum) in the center, and (2) a semicircular seating arrangement (Greek, koilon; Latin, cavea). None of the seats has survived, but there were apparently 11 graded rows of seats to accommodate about 450 spectators. The orchestra, a semicircular area between the stage and the seating arrangement, was paved with rectangular marble slabs. The odeion in Hippos, which was erected at the end of the first century C.E., is smaller in comparison with others found in the Roman Empire but excels in the quality of its construction and careful planning. Two other odeia have been found in the Decapolis region: one in Philadelphia (Amman) and the other in Scythopolis (Beth-Shean).

Churches.

Only two of the eight churches found in Hippos-Sussita have been fully exposed. The North-West Church was excavated by the Polish team, while the North-East Church was excavated by the American team. The churches did not stand isolated from the larger complex of buildings, agricultural installations, stores, and residential quarters. They were built not before the end of the fifth century C.E., and archaeological evidence confirms that they continued to function until the final destruction of the city in 749 C.E.

The North-West Church complex was constructed over the ruins of a Roman temple erected upon an earlier Hellenistic temple, and the stones from these former structures were used to build the church. It consisted of a rectangular prayer hall aligned east–west, with two rows of columns dividing it into a nave and two aisles; and the floor was completely paved with mosaics, in which there were two short Greek inscriptions giving the names of the donors. A half-domed, semicircular apse was built into the short eastern wall, while a quadrangular courtyard (atrium) extended on its western side paved with basalt flagstones. There were additional halls on the northern and southern sides and agricultural installations, including three winepresses and an oil press.

The North-East Church complex is located about 164 ft (50 m) to the east of its neighbor. This much smaller and less preserved church was erected within an earlier building complex. Some surprising discoveries were made during the excavation of the church and the domus urbana, an impressive domestic structure located to the east of the church: (1) a limestone sarcophagus containing the bones of a saintly woman buried within the church near the apse and altar; (2) a fresco of the city goddess of fortune (Greek, Tyche; Latin, Fortuna) crowned with a model of the city walls (corona muralis); and (3) a skillful bone carving of a maenad dancing in ritual frenzy, her flowing robes emphasizing her womanly shape. The last two finds, discovered in the domus urbana near the church, give a clear indication of the transition between the pagan and Christian worlds.

The most impressive of Hippos’s churches is located to the south of the Decumanus Maximus and to the east of the forum. This church, called by the excavators “the Cathedral” because of the richness of architectural decoration exposed in it, was only partially excavated during the IDF fortification works executed on the mountain in the early 1950s.

This is a monoapsidal church with a triapsidal baptistry located just next to it. To the west of the prayer hall, which is divided by two rows of granite columns into a nave and two aisles, is a spacious atrium. Surprising is the unbelievable richness of architectural decoration which fills both the church and the baptistry, especially the pink and gray granite monolithic columns, white marble Attic bases, and Corinthian capitals. The prayer hall was paved with different-sized colored marble slabs (opus sectile). All of these granite and marble architectural items were of Roman origin and were reused during the Byzantine era. They were imported from the marble and granite quarries, mainly from Asia Minor and Aswan (Egypt). They are a vivid testimony to the civic pride and affluence of Roman Hippos.

Finally, it is worth mentioning that the columns of the prayer hall were found lying on the floor, having been thrown down in a single direction by an earthquake. These fallen columns indicate the magnitude of the 749 C.E. earthquake, which brought Hippos’s life to an end.

Urban Landscape of Hippos-Sussita.

Our knowledge about Hellenistic Hippos is very limited, and very little evidence of that period has been exposed. The city walls and the sanctuary (temenos) were apparently erected at the end of the Hellenistic period. The well-developed urban water-supply system was constructed in the first century C.E., at the same time as the Decumanus Maximus. This means that the urban plan of the city was determined during the early Roman period and not during the Hellenistic period. When Antiochia Hippos was founded in the period of Seleucid rule, it was merely an administrative center with a small settlement and a sanctuary. The road leading to the sanctuary from the east became, in the Roman period, the Decumanus Maximus. This was not the only instance in which a processional way became in time the main street of a city. A good example is the Via Sacra in Petra, where the road leading toward the main sanctuary in the west of the city, the Qasr el-Bint, turned in the second century C.E. into a colonnaded street with public buildings along both sides. The Cardo Maximus in Gerasa may also have originally been a processional way leading to the sanctuary of Zeus in the southern part of the city. In Bosra, the road leading to the Nabataean sanctuary east of the city became, after its establishment as the capital of Provincia Arabia, the main colonnaded street of the city.

Hippos-Sussita resembles the urban plan of Gadara, its southern neighbor. The main colonnaded street in Gadara also lies on an east–west axis and traverses the entire length of the city, with a few streets (cardines) intersecting it in a north–south direction. Gerasa, another of the Decapolis cities, has a main colonnaded street, with a north–south axis, the Cardo Maximus, which traverses the entire length of the city. Two streets running in an east–west direction (decumani) intersect with the Cardo Maximus at right angles. In both Gadara and Gerasa, the street network seems to be very sparse. The street network of Philadelphia (Amman), which is the southernmost of the Decapolis cities, consists of only two colonnaded streets. Although Philadelphia was founded by the Ptolemies in the first quarter of the third century B.C.E., its urban plan and all its public buildings, except for the sanctuary on the acropolis, belong to the Roman period. In Roman Samaria (Sebaste), one colonnaded street crossed the city along its entire width and has been dated to the early third century C.E. Hence, even if the cities were founded during the Hellenistic period or at the beginning of the Roman period, their urban landscapes were designed in its final stage in the second or even third century C.E.

They all had streets and public plazas surrounded by colonnades or structures resembling triumphal arches that created a fascinating urban landscape, both rich and impressive. The citizens of the Decapolis cities were proud of their city and clung to their polis form of government. They zealously guarded their independence, minted their own coins, and maintained commercial ties with each other. Although united on a common ethnic or cultural basis, they competed among themselves in constructing monumental structures to symbolize their wealth and power. They apparently enjoyed a luxurious lifestyle and were proud of their Greek culture, but the urban and architectural repertoire of forms through which they expressed their civic pride was imperial Roman.

The Umayyad Period.

The transition from the Byzantine to the early Arab period under the Umayyad caliphate was not accompanied by the destruction of the churches, which continued to function and even to thrive during the seventh and in the early eighth centuries C.E. However, there are clear signs of a change for the worse in the urban landscape. No new public buildings were built at that time, while workshops, stores, and private buildings were set up in the plazas and streets of the city. These haphazard constructions, so carelessly planned and of such low quality, seriously marred the city landscape; and the grand colonnaded street, the Decumanus Maximus, now resembled a typical eastern emporium. A fatal earthquake that shook the region in 749 C.E. razed the city to its foundations. The fallen columns, crushed walls, and small finds scattered over the area all confirm that the tremor was sudden and very destructive. The city was deserted immediately after the earthquake and never inhabited again.

[See also BETH-SHEAN, ROMAN AND BYZANTINE PERIOD; SAMARIA/SEBASTE; and TIBERIAS.)]

Bibliography

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Arthur Segal