In biblical studies, this included the investigation of sources and problems of authorship. The term is also used as in the study of poetry, drama, and novels, as an attempt to understand the biblical writings as literature. This involves, for example, appreciating the wealth of symbolism, metaphor, paradox, paronomasia, irony, and characterization and plot in the text. For example, 1 and 2 Samuel are read as lively stories rather than as fundamental historical sources for the monarchies of Saul and David. Similarly, the NT gospels can each be enjoyed as a whole.