Of the thirteen Seleucid kings of this name, the best-known is Antiochus IV Epiphanes, who ruled from 175 to 164 BCE. His efforts to Hellenize his dominions were resisted by Jews under the Maccabees (1 Macc. 1: 10, 20; 2: 15 ff.). The book of Daniel reached its final form at this time, and the ‘abomination’ in 12: 11 refers to the desecration of the Temple by Antiochus.