Attributed to a demonic power seizing possession of a personality, notably of Saul (1 Sam. 16: 14–17), whose ‘evil spirit from the Lord’ may have been a form of manic‐depression. Young David was his therapist, and music the instrument of calm. In the synoptic gospels there are records of Jesus' exorcisms, by which demons were cast out of madmen—evidently a different sort of affliction from Saul's. Jesus was himself alleged to be ‘possessed’ on the grounds of transgressing contemporary social or religious customs (Mark 3: 21–2).