An eastern people (Judg. 6: 3) who recur frequently in the OT. A group of them took Joseph into Egypt (Gen. 37: 28); the young Moses fled from Egypt to Midian (Exod. 2: 15) and there married the daughter of a priest; later, some Midianites were massacred by Moses (Num. 31: 1–12) and Gideon defeated them (Judg. 7: 23).