Unlawful killing was prohibited in the Ten Commandments (Exod. 20: 13), for which capital punishment was prescribed (Exod. 21: 12). Safe havens, however, were available for those who had killed another accidentally (Deut. 19: 5), subject to enquiry when the offender reached the gate of the designated city (Num. 35: 24). This provision acted as a restraint on tit‐for‐tat killings and the consequential social unrest. At the Return from Exile the system of asylum was replaced by the judiciary (Ezra 7: 25–6), but under the Romans the right to inflict the death penalty was withdrawn from the Jewish courts (John 18: 31), though there is some evidence that there were exceptions to this regulation. In the Sermon on the Mount (Matt. 5: 21–2) Jesus extends the law against murder and forbids even anger.