A blessing from God, giving a hope based on Christ's resurrection (1 Pet. 1: 3). It is the fruit of baptism. Paul has the same doctrine but a different vocabulary in Rom. 6: 3–4. The terms of 1 Peter were also common in the pagan mystery religions, and it has been suggested that if 1 Peter is a late and pseudonymous document, it could have been influenced by these mysteries. Equally, however, the language of new birth is found in the Dead Sea scrolls, and so there is the possibility of Jewish origin.