Bishop of Hierapolis (140 CE); quoted by the historian Eusebius as having been once told by ‘the Elder’ that Mark, not himself a follower of Jesus, acted as a translator or interpreter for Peter. Because he often listened to Peter's preaching, Mark was able to write down what he remembered, though admittedly this was not ‘in order’. These words were the basis which established the tradition of the connection of Mark's gospel with Peter. Though it was not first‐hand eyewitness testimony, it was enough to establish the authority of this gospel even after Matthew and Luke became more popular.

Papias also wrote that Matthew wrote down ‘sayings’ of Jesus in Hebrew, and it has been speculated that he was referring to what scholars nowadays call ‘Q’; but evidence that such a source has existed in Hebrew (if it existed at all) is entirely lacking. Perhaps Papias meant that Matthew compiled a convenient anthology of OT proof texts for Christian preachers.