Small leather cases, mentioned in the Law (Exod. 13: 9; Deut. 6: 8). They were worn in NT times by Pharisees and some others and were attached to the forehead and the left arm of males when reciting daily prayers. Inside the cases were texts from the Pentateuch. Scribes and Pharisees were alleged to make a display of exaggerated piety by making their phylacteries more conspicuous than was necessary (Matt. 23: 5).