From the Greek, meaning a chief angel; seven are named in 1 Enoch 20, cf. Tobit 12: 15. In the two centuries BCE and the first CE the Jewish doctrine of angels was developed by some (e.g. in the community of Qumran) into a hierarchy of angels which included a rank of archangels (Test. of Levi 3: 5). Paul mentions the archangel's voice (1 Thess. 4: 16) and Michael the Archangel appears in Jude 9.