The kings who ruled Egypt from 323 BCE after the death of Alexander the Great took this name; their aim was to introduce Greek culture and learning at Alexandria (where there lived a large community of Jews). In the 2nd cent. BCE there was considerable strife within the dynasty, with the Seleucids of Syria, and finally with the Romans. The last of the line was Cleopatra VII, married to Mark Antony, who gave her his territory in Palestine; but when Augustus defeated their combined navies at Actium in Sept. 31 BCE Cleopatra committed suicide.