German OT scholar, professor at Jena and Göttingen universities, when love of the OT was defended through the anti–Semitic years of the Nazi regime. He wrote important works on the history of Israel and on Genesis. He assumed the results of the source criticism of the Pentateuch but he moved his own studies on to religious areas, influenced by Karl Barth, stressing the OT theme of salvation rather than creation. He recognized that there was ‘genuine historical writing’ in, e.g. Samuel and 1 and 2 Kings, but they were fitted into his scheme of Heilsgeschichte—secular history seen with the eyes of faith.