A small-scale army, or bodyguard, was established in the early days of the monarchy (1 Sam. 13: 2) and was enlarged by David and Solomon. After the defeat of Israel and Judah by the Assyrians and Babylonians, Jewish armies were not operative until the Maccabean period (165 BCE). Herod the Great organized an army, and in the NT there is mention of Roman armies (Luke 21: 20).