The art of persuasion by public speaking. This was studied intensively in the Hellenistic and Roman world, and the gospels and the epistles of Paul reflect some of the techniques that had to be mastered. Amongst the teaching methods of Jesus, his use of parables was pre-eminent. The gospels employ the standard rhetorical device of comparison: Jesus is shown to be greater than Moses (the greatest of the Hebrews), and John the Baptist, the Temple, Jonah, and Solomon. The purpose is to enhance the significance of Jesus. Paul's epistles, though written for particular needs and with characteristics not unlike many of the personal notes and business letters discovered in papyri from the Egyptian desert, are not without rhetorical devices, e.g. Philem. 11, 2 Cor. 6: 4 ff.; 2 Cor. 11: 22 ff.