Hebrew for ‘military hosts’. Used in AV, RV at Rom. 9: 29, which is a quotation from Isa. 1: 9. The meaning is Lord of the hosts (of heaven), as in Ps. 89: 6–8. The mercy-seat of the Ark was regarded as the throne of the invisible God, a kind of general of the armies of Israel, seated on this throne. It was therefore important for the Israelites to take the Ark into battle (1 Sam. 4: 4). The term also occurs in Jas. 5: 4.