Followers of the philosopher Zeno born in Citium, in Cyprus (335–263 BCE), who lived in Athens and taught within a colonnade (Greek, stoa). They were numerous in NT times among Roman politicians and orators and emphasized the cosmopolitan nature of mankind, teaching that all are brothers and sisters in the world, but that the lot here of everyone is predetermined. The most effective means of dealing with this fate was to control one's own passions and ambitions so that inevitable external events had the least painful results. Stoicism was a philosophy of life which called for inner discipline, and had points of contact both with Jewish Wisdom literature (e.g. Wisd. of Sol. 7: 22–6 and Ecclus. 43: 2–7) and with Christian teaching. For example, Stoics held that the universe was inspired by a divine Logos or Word (cf. John 1: 1–3), and there are parallels between the Household Codes of the epistles and ethical teaching of the Stoics. The difference is that the ideal for Christians was to include a warmth and love which the Stoics would have regarded as rather reprehensible. Christian martyrdom out of loyalty and love for Jesus was different from the steely courage to endure of the Stoics. Paul uses the Stoic term for self-sufficiency (autarkeia) in 2 Cor. 9: 8, but transforms it into the Christian notion of trust in God who strengthened him in Phil. 4: 11–13. According to Acts 17: 22–31 Paul encountered Stoic teachers at Athens, and he made use of popular Stoic philosophy in his sermon there.