Translations of the Hebrew OT into Aramaic to assist Jews in Palestine where Aramaic had become the language of daily speech; made just before and in the first three centuries of the CE. The translations often include interpretations. Targums are especially valuable in determining the original Hebrew text. They are also important for NT studies, since early targums may have been known to Jesus, Paul, and the evangelists, and could provide clues to the meaning of some NT texts, e.g. the exposition of Ps. 68: 18 in Eph. 4: 8.