‘No mean city’ (Acts 21: 39), 16 km. (10 miles) up the notoriously cold River Cydnus in which Alexander the Great once almost drowned, in SE Asia Minor, the centre of cross-currents of commerce and culture and the residence of several distinguished Stoic philosophers. Paul is said (Acts 9: 11) to have been born in the Jewish community at Tarsus, but he spoke Greek like everyone else.